Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Department of Medicine & Rehabilitation and Sport Medicine, University Hospital la Timone, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.
Clinics in sports medicine (Impact Factor: 1.22). 07/2010; 29(3):379-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.csm.2010.03.012
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Patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome is a frequently encountered overuse disorder that involves the patellofemoral region and often presents as anterior knee pain. PFP can be difficult to diagnose. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe PFP is used inconsistently and can be confusing. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) seems to be multifactorial, resulting from a complex interaction among intrinsic anatomic and external training factors. Although clinicians frequently make the diagnosis of PFPS, no consensus exists about its etiology or the factors most responsible for causing pain. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PFP.

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Article: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

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    • "Rearfoot eversion has been reported as a PFP risk factor due to its kinesiological relationship with ascendant adaptations in runners and non-runners (Collado and Fredericson, 2010; Levinger and Gilleard, 2007; Nunes et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive rearfoot eversion is thought to be a risk factor for patellofemoral pain development, due to the kinesiological relationship with ascendant adaptations. Individuals with patellofemoral pain are often diagnosed through static clinical tests, in scientific studies and clinical practice. However, the adaptations seem to appear in dynamic conditions. Performing static vs. dynamic evaluations of widely used measures would add to the knowledge in this area. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability and differentiation capability of three rearfoot eversion measures: rearfoot range of motion, static clinical test and static measurement using a three-dimensional system. A total of 29 individuals with patellofemoral pain and 25 control individuals (18-30 years) participated in this study. Each subject underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during stair climbing and static clinical tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error measurements were performed to verify the reliability of the variables and receiver operating characteristic curves to show the diagnostic accuracy of each variable. In addition, analyses of variance were performed to identify differences between groups. Rearfoot range of motion demonstrated higher diagnostic accuracy (an area under the curve score of 0.72) than static measures and was able to differentiate the groups. Only the static clinical test presented poor and moderate reliability. Other variables presented high to very high values. Rearfoot range of motion was the variable that presented the best results in terms of reliability and differentiation capability. Static variables do not seem to be related to patellofemoral pain and have low accuracy values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 12/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.12.009 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Our study focused on vastus medialis oblique muscle. The role of the VMO among the thigh quadriceps muscle is mainly reported in the studies on the patellofemoral pain disorders, where the weakening of the VMO allows the patella to track too far laterally and causes the malalignment of the patella and abnormal lateral displacement.[3435] In literature, the effect of various exercises on muscle strength was investigated on specific muscles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This investigation compared the effects of exercise rehabilitation and bracing on muscle flexibility and strength as well as knee proprioception and pain in female sufferers of lateral displacement of patella (LDP). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two females with unilateral LDP were randomly divided into two groups to receive exercises (n = 12) or patellar brace (n = 10). Both groups were evaluated before and after 8 weeks with isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro) for muscle strength and proprioception, with SLR, Active Knee Flexion, and Sit and Reach tests for flexibility assessment and with a visual analog scale for pain. Results: Muscle flexibility in both exercise and bracing groups improved (F(1,20)≥5.99 and P ≤ 0.024), whereas improvement in bracing group was not significant. Significant interaction was observed in favor of exercise group in 2 strength tests of knee flexion and knee extension (F(1,20)≥6.564 and P ≤ 0.019). For proprioception, a significant interaction was observed in favor of bracing group (F(1,20) =7.944 and P = 0.011). Also the results showed both exercise rehab and brace decreased significantly pain severity during stair ascending and descending. Conclusion: These results suggest that better flexibility and more strength in exercise group somehow reduced the stress on patellofemoral joint and it, in turn, alleviated the symptoms and pain. It is also likely that relieving effects of brace and improvement of proprioception by it allows patients to be more physically active and it could have, more or less, effects similar to exercise. Therefore both exercise and brace could be prescribed for patients with LDP. It seems application of the patellar brace combined with exercise might be a better treatment for these patients, because they could improve strength, flexibility and proprioception.
    08/2014; 3:165. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.139128
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    • "Hence, clinical assessment of patients with anterior knee pain is challenging and crucial, since an event of patellar maltracking like LPD is missing and several risk factors as osseous stability, lateral muscular vector force, ligamentous instability or constraint and torsional disadvantages need to be addressed or compensated. Origin of the pain can be the synovium, the patella, its aponeurosis, the fat pad, the tendinous, retinacular and ligamentous insertions, or in young patients also hip disorders.61 "
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    ABSTRACT: Patellofemoral instability not only involves lateral patellar dislocation, patellar mal-tracking or subluxation but can also cause a limiting disability for sports activities. Its underlying causes are known as morphological anomalies of the patellofemoral joint or the mechanical axis, femorotibial malrotation, variants of the knee extensor apparatus, and ligamentous insufficiencies often accompanied by poor proprioception. Athletes with such predisposing factors are either suffering from unspecific anterior knee pain or from slightly traumatic or recurrent lateral patellar dislocation Treatment options of patellar instability are vast, and need to be tailored individually depending on the athlete's history, age, complaints and physical demands. Different conservative and surgical treatment options are reviewed and discussed, especially limited expectations after surgery.
    Orthopedic Reviews 07/2013; 5(3):e23. DOI:10.4081/or.2013.e23
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