Prevalence, molecular typing and risk factor analysis for Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in a central London rescue shelter.
ABSTRACT A cross-sectional survey to investigate canine infections with Giardia duodenalis was undertaken at a central London rescue shelter between October 2006 and March 2007. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in dogs admitted to a London dog shelter using a commercially available ELISA-based test kit; (ii) identify the relative importance of potential dog level risk factors for infection; and (iii) identify the occurrence of different G. duodenalis assemblages present in this population in order to identify presence of any potentially zoonotic assemblages. A faecal sample was collected from each dog entering the shelter within 1 day of arrival. Each sample was tested for the presence of parasite cyst wall protein using the Giardia SNAP test kit (Idexx Laboratories). Samples were graded for faecal consistency on a standard scale and data on age, breed, categorized breed group, sex and neutered status were collected for each dog. Associations between infection status and each dog level variable were investigated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Selected G. duodenalis-positive samples were genotyped using previously described primers targeting the 18S rDNA gene and the beta-giardin gene. Samples from a total of 878 dogs were collected and the true prevalence found to be 21.0% (95% CI 16.7-25.4%). In the present study, the odds of infection decreased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80, p<0.0001) and was increased for Rottweilers (adjusted odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.03-4.34, p=0.04). Of the 51 samples selected for genotyping, 41 samples yielded a good amplification at one or both of the targeted genes, demonstrating the occurrence of mainly dog-specific assemblages C and D. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A and a mixed template C/D were found in two individual dogs. The results of the present study illustrate the high prevalence of G. duodenalis in shelter dogs. Although predominantly infected with dog-specific assemblages, the identification of assemblage A suggests that appropriate precautions should be taken to minimize the risk of transmission to staff.
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ABSTRACT: The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis causes infection in humans and in various animals. Eight distinct assemblages (A-H) have been identified within G. duodenalis; assemblages A and B are those specific to humans and animals, and assemblages C to H are restricted to animal hosts. The present study estimated the prevalence of G. duodenalis assemblages in dogs living in the Sardinia region and evaluated the related risk factors. Individual fecal samples were collected from 655 dogs between January 2007 and December 2010, and a form was filled out for each animal to analyze historic data that were available at the time of sampling. Fecal samples were subjected to microscopic and genetic investigations. Cysts of G. duodenalis were found in 172 (26.3%) samples, with significant values in puppies between three and nine months of age, and in kennelled and hunting dogs. The molecular characterization showed the presence of assemblages D (49%), C (36.1%), and subtype A2 (4.2%). The present survey contributes to the knowledge of the occurrence of canine giardiosis in Italy in a region with a high number of dogs and numerous animal movements, which is especially relevant for touristic reasons.The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 01/2014; 8(5):655-60. · 1.00 Impact Factor
Article: Zoonotic potential of Giardia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection.International journal for parasitology 07/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs in China, a total of 205 fecal specimens from dogs were screened for Giardia duodenalis using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase gene. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in dogs was 13.2% (27/205). The potentially zoonotic assemblage A and the dog-specific assemblage C was identified in 25 (12.2%) and two (1.0%) dogs, respectively. All assemblage A isolates belonged to sub-assemblage AI, genotype AI-1. Likewise, one subtype was found in assemblage C. The high occurrence of potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis subtype AI-1 in dogs that are in close contact with humans is of public health concern.Experimental Parasitology 07/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor