Candida invasion and influences in smoking patients with multiple oral leucoplakias--a retrospective study.
ABSTRACT Treating patients with multiple oral leucoplakias (MOLs) who smoke is more difficult and complicated than treating those with single oral leucoplakia (SOL). Removing the aetiological factors causing MOL can effectively prevent its recurrence. The aim was to study the infection by and influences of Candida in smoking patients with MOLs. A retrospective study was conducted on 136 smoking patients who had clinicopathological OLs. Among these patients, 73 lesions in 31 patients were MOLs, while 105 patients had SOLs. All patients were treated by complete resection. All specimens were tested for epithelial dysplasia, and stained with periodic acid-Schiff reagent. The rate of MOL concurrence with candidal infection was higher than that of SOLs. The incidence of Candida associated with MOLs was higher for recurrent than for non-recurrent lesions. The disease-free time was shorter in MOL patients with candidal infection. Moreover, MOLs with candidal infection were more likely to have an increasing ratio to combine with epithelial dysplasia. Candida is an important risk factor in smoking patients with MOLs. Microscopic and fungal examinations of those lesions should permit a detailed diagnosis in such patients and for long-term predictive assessments.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine if smoking is an independent predictor of oral candidiasis (OC) among HIV-1 infected persons. METHODS: The cross-sectional part of this study evaluated 631 adult dentate HIV-1 seropositive persons examined for OC from 1995-2000 at the University of North Carolina Hospitals in Chapel Hill, NC. In the second part, from the above sample, a total of 283 individuals who were free of HIV-associated oral diseases at baseline were followed up for 2 years to assess incident OC events. Data collected from medical record review, interview questionnaires, and clinical examinations were analyzed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Logistic regression models were developed for prevalent OC employing the likelihood ratio test, whereas Poisson regression models were developed for assessing cumulative incidence of OC. These models included a variety of independent variables to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of participants had OC only; 4.6% had OC with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia; and 69.7% had neither. Smoking was associated with OC in all models [prevalent OC - current smokers: logistic regression - Odd ratio (95% CI) = 2.5 (1.3, 4.8); Incident OC - current smokers: Poisson regression (main effects model) - Incidence rate ratio (95% CI) = 1.9 (1.1, 3.8)]. Other Poisson regression models suggested evidence for effect modification between CD4 cell count and incident OC by smoking. CONCLUSION: Smoking is an independent risk factor for the development of OC in HIV-1 infected persons, and the risk of OC is modified by CD4 cell count which measures strength of the immune system.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 12/2012; · 1.87 Impact Factor