Trough plasma concentration of imatinib reflects BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity and clinical response in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: a report from the BINGO study.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2010; 101(10):2186-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01643.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pharmacokinetic (PK) factors have been suggested to be involved in the unfavorable clinical responses of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with imatinib. The purpose of this study was to clarify prognostic implications of PK factors in CML patients treated with imatinib. The plasma trough (C(min)) level of imatinib and serum α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) level were measured on two different days in 65 CML patients treated with imatinib for more than 12 months. We further examined whether the C(min) level of imatinib actually reflects inhibitory activity against BCR-ABL kinase using the plasma inhibitory activity (PIA) assay. Since the differences of five patients were statistically rejected by the Smirnov-Grubbs' test, we excluded them for further analysis. The C(min) level was strongly associated with the achievement of MMR at the 12th month, and ROC analysis demonstrated C(min) levels and their discrimination potential for major molecular response (MMR) with the best sensitivity (63.2%) and specificity (68.2%) at a C(min) threshold of 974 ng/mL. The α(1)-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) level was within the normal range in 57 of 60 patients, indicating little impact of AGP on our study. There was a weak correlation between PIA against phospho (P)-BCR-ABL and the C(min) level of imatinib (r(2) = 0.2501, P = 0.0007), and patient plasma containing >974 ng/mL imatinib sufficiently inhibited P-BCR-ABL. These results collectively indicated that maintaining ∼1000 ng/mL of C(min) was clinically and biologically important for the optimal response in CML patients treated with imatinib. A prospective intervention study is required to establish PK-based management in CML patients treated with imatinib.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the search for new drugs and drug targets to treat the flatworm disease schistosomiasis, protein kinases (PKs) have come under particular scrutiny because of their essential roles in developmental and physiological processes in schistosome parasites. In this context the application of the anti-cancer Abl tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor Imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec; STI-571) to adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro has indicated negative effects on diverse physiological processes including survival. Motivated by these in vitro findings, we performed in vivo experiments in rodent models of S. mansoni infection. Unexpectedly, Imatinib had no effect on worm burden or egg-production. We found that the blood components serum albumin (SA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP or orosomucoid) negated Imatinib's deleterious effects on adult S. mansoni and schistosomula (post-infective larvae) in vitro. This negative effect was partially reversed by erythromycin. AGP synthesis can increase as a consequence of inflammatory processes or infection; in addition upon infection AGP levels are 6-8 times higher in mice compared to humans. Therefore, mice and probably other rodents are poor infection models for measuring the effects of Imatinib in vivo. Accordingly, we suggest the routine evaluation of the ability of AGP and SA to block in vitro anti-schistosomal effects of small molecules like Imatinib prior to laborious and expensive animal experiments.
    08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2014.07.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This observational study analyzed imatinib pharmacokinetics and response in 2478 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Data was obtained through centralized therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) at median treatment duration of ≥2years. First, individual initial trough concentrations under 400 mg/day imatinib starting dose were estimated. Second, their correlation (Ĉmin(400mg)) with reported treatment response was verified. Low imatinib levels were predicted in young male patients and those receiving P-gp/CYP3A4 inducers. These patients had also lower response rates (7% lower 18-months MMR in male, 17% lower 1-year CCyR in young patients, Kaplan-Meier estimates). Time-point independent multivariate regression confirmed a correlation of individual Ĉmin(400mg) with response and adverse events. Possibly due to confounding factors (e.g. dose modifications, patient selection bias), the relationship seemed however flatter than previously reported from prospective controlled studies. Nonetheless, these observational results strongly suggest that a subgroup of patients could benefit from early dosage optimization assisted by TDM, because of lower imatinib concentrations and lower response rates.
    Leukemia Research 07/2014; 38(7). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.03.023 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most of oral targeted therapies are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Oral administration generates a complex step in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of these drugs. Inter-individual PK variability is often large and variability observed in response is influenced not only by the genetic heterogeneity of drug targets, but also by the pharmacogenetic background of the patient (e.g. cytochome P450 and ABC transporter polymorphisms), patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors (drug–drug interactions). Retrospective studies have shown that targeted drug exposure, reflected in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) correlates with treatment response (efficacy/toxicity) in various cancers. Nevertheless levels of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are however heterogeneous among these agents and TDM is still uncommon for the majority of them. Evidence for imatinib currently exists, others are emerging for compounds including nilotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, sorafenib and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Applications for TDM during oral targeted therapies may best be reserved for particular situations including lack of therapeutic response, severe or unexpected toxicities, anticipated drug–drug interactions and/or concerns over adherence treatment. Interpatient PK variability observed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is comparable or slightly lower to that observed with TKIs. There are still few data with these agents in favour of TDM approaches, even if data showed encouraging results with rituximab, cetuximab and bevacizumab. At this time, TDM of mAbs is not yet supported by scientific evidence. Considerable effort should be made for targeted therapies to better define concentration–effect relationships and to perform comparative randomised trials of classic dosing versus pharmacokinetically-guided adaptive dosing.
    European Journal of Cancer 08/2014; 50(12). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.04.015 · 4.82 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 8, 2014