Article

Presence and Partitioning Behavior of Polyfluorinated Iodine Alkanes in Environmental Matrices around a Fluorochemical Manufacturing Plant: Another Possible Source for Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids?

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 08/2010; 44(15):5755-61. DOI: 10.1021/es101507s
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The indistinct origins of some ubiquitous perfluorinated alkyl acids have attracted great attention in recent decades. In this present work, even-chained polyfluorinated iodides (PFIs), a group of volatile perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including four perfluorinated iodine alkanes (FIAs) and three polyfluorinated telomer iodides (FTIs) were confirmed to be present in the environment. A wide concentration range was found for FIAs at 1.41 to 3.08x10(4) pg/L, and for FTIs at 1.39 to 1.32x10(3) pg/L in the ambient air collected around a fluorochemical manufacturing plant in Shandong province, northern China. Whereas for surface soils, most of these PFIs were below detection limits and only small amounts of analytes with higher carbon chain (such as perfluorododecyl iodide and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl iodide, 16.6-499 pg/g) could be sporadically detected. The presence of the PFIs in different environmental matrices in the investigated area and calculated vapor pressures (0.095-20.4 Torr) verify that they can be considered as volatile organic chemicals and easily be released into the atmosphere. Together with reported degradation ability and long-range transport potential, the identification of these PFIs indicates that unintentional release during the telomer reaction process might also be another route for the formation and distribution of certain polyfluorinated alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acid derivatives under oxidative conditions in the environment.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl precursors contributes in part to the perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates detected in the global environment and biota. Robust sample preparation and sensitive analytical techniques for maximum analyte recovery are essential to identify and to quantify biotransformation products often present at low levels in environmental matrices and experimental systems. This critical review covers current sample-preparation and analytical methods, including extraction, concentration, clean-up and derivatization, mass spectrometry coupled to gas or liquid chromatography, and radioisotope labeling and tracking techniques. We also critically review methodologies for molecular structural elucidation and in-silico prediction of potential transformation products. We describe current knowledge gaps and challenges in studying novel alternative polyfluoroalkyl substances. We discuss future trends on utilizing advanced analytical techniques.
    TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.trac.2014.11.017 · 6.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We quantify global emissions of C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues during the life-cycle of products based on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and fluorotelomer compounds. We estimate emissions of 2610-21400 tonnes of C4-C14 PFCAs in the period from 1951 to 2015, and project 20-6420 tonnes to be emitted from 2016 to 2030. The global annual emissions steadily increased in the period 1951-2002, followed by a decrease and then another increase in the period 2002-2012. Releases from fluoropolymer production contributed most to historical PFCA emissions (e.g. 55-83% in 1951-2002). Since 2002, there has been a geographical shift of industrial sources (particularly fluoropolymer production sites) from North America, Europe and Japan to emerging Asian economies, especially China. Sources differ between PFCA homologues, sometimes considerably, and the relative contributions of each source change over time. For example, whereas 98-100% of historical (1951-2002) PFOA emissions are attributed to direct releases during the life-cycle of products containing PFOA as ingredients or impurities, a much higher historical contribution from PFCA precursor degradation is estimated for some other homologues (e.g. 9-78% for PFDA). We address the uncertainties of the PFCA emissions by defining a lower and a higher emission scenario, which differ by approximately a factor of eight.
    Environment International 09/2014; 70:62–75. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.013 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as well as polymers of PFASs, have been widely used in commercial applications and have been detected in humans and the environment. Previous epidemiological studies have shown associations between particular PFAS chemicals and serum lipid concentrations in adults, particularly perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). There exists, however, limited information concerning the effect of PFASs have on serum lipids among children. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 Taiwanese children (12-15years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level PFASs and lipid concentration. Results showed that eight out of ten particular PFASs were detected in the serum of >94% of the participants. Serum PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) levels were at an order of magnitude higher than the other PFASs, with arithmetical means of 32.4 and 30.7ng/ml in boys and 34.2 and 27.4ng/ml in girls, respectively. However, the variation in serum PFTA concentration was quite large. Following covariate adjustment, linear regression models revealed that PFOS, PFOA, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were positively associated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG), particularly for PFOS and PFTA. Quartile analysis, with the lowest exposure quartile as a reference, yielded associations between serum PFTA and elevations in TC (p=0.002) and LDL (p=0.004). Though not statistically significant, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) appeared to decrease linearly across quartiles for PFOS and PFOA exposure. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between serum PFASs and lipid level in Taiwanese children. These findings for PFTA are novel, and emphasize the need to investigate the exposure route and toxicological evidence of PFASs beyond PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2015; 512-513C:364-370. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.042 · 3.16 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
3 Downloads
Available from
Feb 9, 2015