Evaluation of p16 immunostaining to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with Pap results of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.
ABSTRACT p16 immunostaining has been examined to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade (CIN2+) in Pap cytology specimens. However, the utility of p16 in predicting CIN2+ in Pap specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasm (ASC-H), is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the utility of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ in 78 Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H and compared the results in high-risk HPV DNA and the follow-up biopsies. p16 immunostaining was positive in 47% (37/78) of the Pap specimens. Of the 13 Pap specimens with follow-up biopsy results of CIN2+, 7 (54%) were positive for p16. p16 positivity in the Pap specimens was not significantly associated with a CIN2+ biopsy result (P = 0.76). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ were 54%, 52%, 19%, and 85%, respectively. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 40% (31/78) of the Pap specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of HPV DNA for predicting CIN2+ were 100%, 72%, 42%, and 100%, respectively. High-risk HPV genotypes were detected in six p16-negative specimens with follow-up biopsy results of CIN2+. Our findings suggest that the utility of p16 immunostaining for predicting CIN2+ in Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H is limited. Scant abnormal cells in Pap specimens with ASC-US/ASC-H may have contributed to the low p16 sensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: The best method for identifying women who have minor cervical lesions that require diagnostic workup remains unclear. The authors of this report performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4a) ) immunocytochemistry compared with high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) to detect grade 2 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) and CIN3+ among women who had cervical cytology indicating atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade cervical lesions (LSIL). A literature search was performed in 3 electronic databases to identify studies that were eligible for this meta-analysis. Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of p16(INK4a) to detect CIN2+ was 83.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.8%-88.2%) and 83.8% (95% CI, 73.5%-90.6%) in ASC-US and LSIL cervical cytology, respectively, and the pooled specificities were 71% (95% CI, 65%-76.4%) and 65.7% (95% CI, 54.2%-75.6%), respectively. Eight studies provided both HC2 and p16(INK4a) triage data. p16(INK4a) and HC2 had similar sensitivity, and p16(INK4a) has significantly higher specificity in the triage of women with ASC-US (relative sensitivity, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.89-1.01]; relative specificity, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.57-2.12]). In the triage of LSIL, p16(INK4a) had significantly lower sensitivity but higher specificity compared with HC2 (relative sensitivity, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]; relative specificity, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.99-3.76]). The published literature indicated the improved accuracy of p16(INK4a) compared with HC2 testing in the triage of women with ASC-US. In LSIL triage, p16(INK4a) was more specific but less sensitive. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.Cancer Cytopathology 06/2012; 120(5):294-307. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extraordinarily prevalent worldwide. However, most incident HPV infections clear within a few years, whereas a small minority persists to invasive cancer. Recent studies indicate that detection of methylated viral DNA may distinguish women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) from those with a carcinogenic HPV type infection that shows no evidence of CIN2+. Several studies have reported a positive association between methylation of CpG sites in the L1 gene and CIN2+, while there are inconclusive results regarding methylation of CpG sites in the Upstream Regulatory Region (URR). In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on HPV DNA methylation in cervical carcinogenesis, and discuss the merits of different methods used to measure HPV DNA methylation. To follow the promising leads, we suggest future studies to validate the use of methylated carcinogenic HPV DNA as a predictive and/or diagnostic biomarker for risk of cervical cancer among HPV-positive women.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 10/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Currently, there are discrepancies in the interpretation between cervical liquid-based cytology (LBC) and histologic diagnoses. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of p16(INK4a) (p16) and IMP3 staining of LBC specimens to increase the concordance rate. A total of 98 cell blocks with biopsy results, including 37 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 36 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and 25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), were selected for the immunocytochemical analysis of p16 and IMP3. The LBC diagnoses corresponded with histological diagnoses for 59.5% (22/37), 63.9% (23/36), and 88.0% (22/25) of LSIL, HSIL, and SCC lesions, respectively. We found a high frequency of p16 positivity in HSIL (72.2%) and SCC (100%), but not LSIL (29.7%). IMP3 was frequently expressed in SCC (84.0%), but rarely in LSIL (8.1%) and HSIL (25.0%). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1) was negative for both p16 and IMP3, CIN2/3 tended to be positive for p16 and negative for IMP3, and SCC was positive for both p16 and IMP3. The combination of p16 and IMP3 immunostaining had a higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN1 and CIN2/3 than cytology. For detecting SCC, p16/IMP3 had a higher sensitivity than cytology, but a lower specificity. IMP3 is a useful diagnostic immunomarker that can be used to identify SCC and the combination of p16/IMP3 expression was found to improve the discrepant results between cytologic and histologic diagnoses.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(8):1549-57. · 2.24 Impact Factor