Effect of Recombinant Human Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Infusion on Lipoprotein Metabolism in Mice

Pulmonary and Vascular Medicine Branch, Lipoprotein Metabolism Section, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 10/2010; 335(1):140-8. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.110.169540
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the presence of an abnormal lipoprotein called lipoprotein X (Lp-X) that contributes to end-stage renal disease. We examined the possibility of using LCAT an as enzyme replacement therapy agent by testing the infusion of human recombinant (r)LCAT into several mouse models of LCAT deficiency. Infusion of plasma from human LCAT transgenic mice into LCAT-knockout (KO) mice rapidly increased HDL-cholesterol (C) and lowered cholesterol in fractions containing very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and Lp-X. rLCAT was produced in a stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293f cell line and purified to homogeneity, with a specific activity of 1850 nmol/mg/h. Infusion of rLCAT intravenously, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly into human apoA-I transgenic mice showed a nearly identical effect in increasing HDL-C approximately 2-fold. When rLCAT was intravenously injected into LCAT-KO mice, it showed a similar effect as plasma from human LCAT transgenic mice in correcting the abnormal lipoprotein profile, but it had a considerably shorter half-life of approximately 1.23 ± 0.63 versus 8.29 ± 1.82 h for the plasma infusion. rLCAT intravenously injected in LCAT-KO mice crossed with human apolipoprotein (apo)A-I transgenic mice had a half-life of 7.39 ± 2.1 h and increased HDL-C more than 8-fold. rLCAT treatment of LCAT-KO mice was found to increase cholesterol efflux to HDL isolated from mice when added to cells transfected with either ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 or ABCG1. In summary, rLCAT treatment rapidly restored the normal lipoprotein phenotype in LCAT-KO mice and increased cholesterol efflux, suggesting the possibility of using rLCAT as an enzyme replacement therapy agent for LCAT deficiency.

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    ABSTRACT: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. Mutations in the LCAT gene leads to two rare disorders, familial LCAT deficiency and fish-eye disease, both characterized by severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia associated with several lipoprotein abnormalities. No specific treatment is presently available for genetic LCAT deficiency. In the present study, recombinant human LCAT was expressed and tested for its ability to correct the lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficient plasma. The results show that rhLCAT efficiently reduces the amount of unesterified cholesterol (-30%) and promotes the production of plasma cholesteryl esters (+210%) in LCAT deficient plasma. rhLCAT induces a marked increase in HDL-C levels (+89%) and induces the maturation of small preβ-HDL into alpha-migrating particles. Moreover, the abnormal phospholipid-rich particles migrating in the LDL region were converted in normally sized LDL.
    Biologicals 10/2013; 41(6). DOI:10.1016/j.biologicals.2013.09.007 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.
    Nature Communications 03/2015; 6:6250. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7250 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an important enzyme in cholesterol metabolism that is involved in the esterification of cholesterol. A lack of this enzyme results in deranged metabolic pathways that are not completely understood, resulting in abnormal deposition of lipids in several organs. Clinically, it manifests with proteinuria, dyslipidemia and corneal opacity with progressive chronic kidney disease resulting in end-stage renal disease. Case Presentation: We herein present a case of a 30-year-old male with proteinuria that was not responsive to empiric management with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and oral steroids. Physical examination revealed corneal ring opacity involving both eyes. Urinalysis revealed an active sediment. The 24-h proteinuria was 3.55 grams. Family history was positive for renal disease and dyslipidemia. Viral serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were negative. Serum complements were normal and anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was negative. We elected for a renal biopsy that revealed characteristic features of LCAT deficiency. The diagnosis of LCAT deficiency was established with a combination of clinical and pathological findings. Conclusions: Currently renal prognosis is poor but conservative management with ACE inhibitors and lipid lowering therapy in addition to steroids has been shown to retard progression to end-stage renal disease. However newer therapies such as gene replacement and recombinant LCAT replacement are being studied with promising preliminary results.


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