A 5’-flanking region of embryonic-type myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M)(7)(4)(3)(−)(2), from torafugu Takifugu rubripes regulates developmental muscle-specific expression
ABSTRACT The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂, is highly expressed in fast muscle fibers of torafugu embryos. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in its expression have been unclear. In this study, we examined spatio-temporal expression patterns of this gene during development by injecting expression vectors containing the GFP reporter gene fused to the 5'-flanking region of MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ into fertilized eggs of zebrafish and medaka. Although the -2.1kb 5'-flanking region of torafugu MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ showed no homology with the corresponding regions of zebrafish and medaka orthologous genes on the rVISTA analysis, the torafugu 5'-flanking region activated the GFP expression which was detected in the myotomal compartment for both zebrafish and medaka embryos. The GFP expression was localized to fast and slow muscle fibers in larvae as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to the above tissues, GFP was also expressed in jaw, eye and pectoral fin muscles in embryos and larvae. These results clearly demonstrated that the 2.1 kb 5'-flanking region of MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ contains essential cis-regulatory sequences for myogenesis that are conserved among torafugu, zebrafish and medaka.
- Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D Genomics and Proteomics 10/2010; 6(1):9-10. DOI:10.1016/j.cbd.2010.10.001 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M743-2), is highly expressed in fast muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae, suggesting its functional roles for embryonic and larval muscle development. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanism involved in its expression remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the 2075bp 5'-flanking region of torafugu MYH(M743-2) to examine the spatial and temporal regulation by using transgenic and transient expression techniques in zebrafish embryos. Combining both transient and transgenic analyses, we demonstrated that the 2075bp 5'-flanking sequences was sufficient for its expression in skeletal, craniofacial and pectoral fin muscles. The immunohistochemical observation revealed that the zebrafish larvae from the stable transgenic line consistently expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in fast muscle fibers. Promoter deletion analyses demonstrated that the minimum 468bp promoter region could direct MYH(M743-2) expression in zebrafish larvae. We discovered that the serum response factor (SRF)-like binding sites are required for promoting MYH(M743-2) expression and myoblast determining factor (MyoD) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites participate in the transcriptional control of MYH(M743-2) expression in fast skeletal muscles. We further discovered that MyoD binding sites, but not MEF2, participate in the transcriptional regulation of MYH(M743-2) expression in pectoral fin and craniofacial muscles. These results clearly demonstrated that multiple cis-elements in the 5'-flanking region of MYH(M743-2) function in the transcriptional control of its expression.Gene 08/2011; 489(1):41-54. DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2011.08.005 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel sarcomeric myosin heavy chain gene, MYH14, was identified following the completion of the human genome project. MYH14 contains an intronic microRNA, miR-499, which is expressed in a slow/cardiac muscle specific manner along with its host gene; it plays a key role in muscle fiber-type specification in mammals. Interestingly, teleost fish genomes contain multiple MYH14 and miR-499 paralogs. However, the evolutionary history of MYH14 and miR-499 has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we identified MYH14/miR-499 loci on various teleost fish genomes and examined their evolutionary history by sequence and expression analyses. Synteny and phylogenetic analyses depict the evolutionary history of MYH14/miR-499 loci where teleost specific duplication and several subsequent rounds of species-specific gene loss events took place. Interestingly, miR-499 was not located in the MYH14 introns of certain teleost fish. An MYH14 paralog, lacking miR-499, exhibited an accelerated rate of evolution compared with those containing miR-499, suggesting a putative functional relationship between MYH14 and miR-499. In medaka, Oryzias latipes, miR-499 is present where MYH14 is completely absent in the genome. Furthermore, by using in situ hybridization and small RNA sequencing, miR-499 was expressed in the notochord at the medaka embryonic stage and slow/cardiac muscle at the larval and adult stages. Comparing the flanking sequences of MYH14/miR-499 loci between torafugu Takifugu rubripes, zebrafish Danio rerio, and medaka revealed some highly conserved regions, suggesting that cis-regulatory elements have been functionally conserved in medaka miR-499 despite the loss of its host gene. This study reveals the evolutionary history of the MYH14/miRNA-499 locus in teleost fish, indicating divergent distribution and expression of MYH14 and miR-499 genes in different teleost fish lineages. We also found that medaka miR-499 was even expressed in the absence of its host gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows the conversion of intronic into non-intronic miRNA during the evolution of a teleost fish lineage.BMC Evolutionary Biology 07/2013; 13(1):142. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-13-142 · 3.41 Impact Factor