Mannose-binding lectin deficiency confers risk for bacterial infections in a large Hungarian cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis
ABSTRACT Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum lectin synthesized by the liver and involved in innate host defense. MBL deficiency increases the risk of various infectious diseases mostly in immune-deficient conditions. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis due to the relative immuncompromised state.
Sera of 929 patients with various chronic liver diseases [autoimmune liver diseases (ALD), 406; viral hepatitis C (HCV), 185; and liver cirrhosis (LC) with various etiologies, 338] and 296 healthy controls (HC) were assayed for MBL concentration. Furthermore, a follow-up, observational study was conducted to assess MBL level as a risk factor for clinically significant bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.
MBL level and the prevalence of absolute MBL deficiency (<100 ng/ml) was not significantly different between patients and controls (ALD: 14.5%, HCV: 11.9%, LC: 10.7%, HC: 15.6%). In cirrhotic patients, the risk for infection was significantly higher among MBL deficient subjects as compared to non-deficient ones (50.0% vs. 31.8%, p=0.039). In a logistic regression analysis, MBL deficiency was an independent risk factor for infections (OR: 2.14 95% CI: 1.03-4.45, p=0.04) after adjusting for Child-Pugh score, co-morbidities, gender, and age. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, MBL deficiency was associated with a shorter time to develop the first infectious complication (median days: 579 vs. 944, pBreslow=0.016, pLogRank=0.027) and was identified as an independent predictor in a multivariate Cox-regression analysis (p=0.003, OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.34-4.03).
MBL deficiency is associated with a higher probability and shorter time of developing infections in liver cirrhosis, further supporting the impact of the MBL molecule on the host defense.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial translocation plays important role in the complications of liver cirrhosis. Antibody formation against various microbial antigens is common in Crohn's disease and considered to be caused by sustained exposure to gut microflora constituents. We hypothesized that anti-microbial antibodies are present in patients with liver cirrhosis and may be associated with the development of bacterial infections. Sera of 676 patients with various chronic liver diseases (autoimmune diseases: 266, viral hepatitis C: 124, and liver cirrhosis of different etiology: 286) and 100 controls were assayed for antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and to antigens derived from two intestinal bacterial isolates (one gram positive, one gram negative, neither is Escherichia coli). In patients with liver cirrhosis, we also prospectively recorded the development of severe episodes of bacterial infection. ASCA and anti-OMP Plus™ antibodies were present in 38.5% and 62.6% of patients with cirrhosis and in 16% and 20% of controls, respectively (p<0.001). Occurrence of these antibodies was more frequent in cases of advanced cirrhosis (according to Child-Pugh and MELD score; p<0.001) or in the presence of ascites (p<0.001). During the median follow-up of 425 days, 81 patients (28.3%) presented with severe bacterial infections. Anti-microbial antibody titers (p = 0.003), as well as multiple seroreactivity (p = 0.036), was associated with infectious events. In logistic regression analysis, the presence of ascites (OR: 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16-2.25), co-morbidities (OR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.27-3.86), and ASCA positivity (OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.07-2.36) were independent risk factors for severe infections. A shorter time period until the first infection was associated with the presence of ASCA (p = 0.03) and multiple seropositivity (p = 0.037) by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and with Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.018, OR: 1.85) and co-morbidities (p<0.001, OR: 2.02) by Cox-regression analysis. The present study suggests that systemic reactivity to microbial components reflects compromised mucosal immunity in patients with liver cirrhosis, further supporting the possible role of bacterial translocation in the formation of anti-microbial antibodies.PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12957. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012957 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased susceptibility to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is considered the cause of hospital admission in about 10% of patients and is present in about 40% of those admitted for ongoing complications. We tried to assess the prevalence of the SIRS with the possible effects on the course of the disease during hospital stay. Two hundred and three patients with liver cirrhosis were examined and investigated with close monitoring during hospital stay. The main clinical endpoints were death and the development of portal hypertension-related complications. Eighty-one patients met the criteria of SIRS (39.9%). We found significant correlations between SIRS and jaundice (p=0.005), bacterial infection (p=0.008), white blood cell count (p<0.001), low haemoglobin concentration (p=0.004), high serum creatinine levels (p<0.001), high alanine aminotransferase levels (p<0.001), serum bilirubin levels (p<0.001), international normalised ratio (p<0.001), serum albumin levels (p=0.033), high Child-Pugh score (p<0.001). During the follow-up period, 26 patients died (12.8%), 15 developed portal hypertension-related bleeding (7.3%), 30 developed hepatic encephalopathy (14.7%), and 9 developed hepatorenal syndrome type-1 (4.4%). SIRS showed significant correlations both to death (p<0.001) and to portal hypertension-related complications (p<0.001). The systemic inflammatory response syndrome occurs in patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with a bad prognosis.Arab Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2011; 12(4):173-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ajg.2011.11.006
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections are common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The early diagnosis of these infections is rather difficult. To assess the accuracy of acute phase proteins in the identification of bacterial infections. Concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), sCD14 and antimicrobial antibodies were measured in serum of 368 well-characterized patients with cirrhosis of whom 139 had documented infection. Clinical data was gathered by reviewing the patients' medical charts. Serum levels of CRP, PCT and LBP were significantly higher in patients with clinically overt infections. Among the markers, CRP - using a 10 mg/L cut-off value- proved to be the most accurate in identifying patients with infection (AUC: 0.93). The accuracy of CRP, however, decreased in advanced stage of the disease, most probably because of the significantly elevated CRP levels in non-infected patients. Combination of CRP and PCT increased the sensitivity and negative predictive value, compared with CRP on its own, by 10 and 5% respectively. During a 3-month follow-up period in patients without overt infections, Kaplan-Meier and proportional Cox-regression analyses showed that a CRP value of >10 mg/L (P = 0.035) was independently associated with a shorter duration to progress to clinically significant bacterial infections. There was no correlation between acute phase protein levels and antimicrobial seroreactivity. C-reactive protein on its own is a sensitive screening test for the presence of bacterial infections in cirrhosis and is also a useful marker to predict the likelihood of clinically significant bacterial infections in patients without overt infections.Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 12/2011; 32(4):603-11. DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02689.x · 4.41 Impact Factor