Scared to death? Generalized anxiety disorder and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease:The Heart and Soul Study.
ABSTRACT Anxiety is common in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but studies examining the effect of anxiety on cardiovascular prognosis and the role of potential mediators have yielded inconsistent results.
To evaluate the effect of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on subsequent cardiovascular events and the extent to which this association is explained by cardiac disease severity and potential behavioral or biological mediators.
Prospective cohort study (Heart and Soul Study).
Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and were followed up until March 18, 2009.
One thousand fifteen outpatients with stable CHD followed up for a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.8) years.
We determined the presence of GAD using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of GAD with subsequent cardiovascular events and the extent to which this association was explained by potential confounders and mediators.
A total of 371 cardiovascular events occurred during 5711 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted annual rate of cardiovascular events was 9.6% in the 106 participants with GAD and 6.6% in the 909 participants without GAD (P = .03). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions (including major depressive disorder), cardiac disease severity, and medication use, GAD remained associated with a 62% higher rate of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.37; P = .01). Additional adjustment for a variety of potential behavioral and biological mediators had little effect on this association (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.67; P = .01).
In outpatients with CHD, a robust association between GAD and cardiovascular events was found that could not be explained by disease severity, health behaviors, or biological mediators. How GAD leads to poor cardiovascular outcomes deserves further study.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Peter De Jonge, May 30, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Frank Jacobi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There has been increasing interest in the relationship between cardiac and metabolic conditions with mental illness. Many studies have found associations between these conditions and depression but results with anxiety disorders have been mixed. We explore these relationships in a nationally representative survey using physician diagnoses of physical conditions and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Data came from the nationally representative German Health Survey (N=4181, age 18-65). Physician diagnoses of angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity were examined in relation to depression and anxiety disorders, which were assessed through a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between these conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographics, psychiatric comorbidity, and substance use, having an anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of cardiac conditions and metabolic risk factors with odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.3. Depression was not associated with any of the conditions but was associated with poor medical compliance for health conditions on two outcomes measured. Anxiety was also associated with reduced medical compliance for one health behaviour measured. Anxiety disorders, but not depression, were associated with metabolic and cardiac conditions in our sample. Both conditions were related to some aspects of poor self-care for health conditions and therefore may be linked to negative outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.General hospital psychiatry 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.03.022 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Although depression and anxiety have been implicated in risk for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a theoretical approach to identifying such putative links is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between theoretical conceptualisations of depression and anxiety with MACCE at the diagnostic and symptom dimension level. Methods Before coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients (N = 158; 20.9 % female) underwent a structured clinical interview to determine caseness for depression and anxiety disorders. Depression and anxiety disorders were arranged into the distress cluster (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder) and fear cluster (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia). Patients also completed the self-report Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, measuring anhedonia, anxious arousal and general distress/negative affect symptom dimensions. Incident MACCE was defined as fatal or non-fatal; myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, repeat revascularization, heart failure, sustained arrhythmia, stroke or cerebrovascular accident, left ventricular failure and mortality due to cardiac causes. Time-to-MACCE was determined by hazard modelling after adjustment for EuroSCORE, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, heart failure and peripheral vascular disease. Results In the total sample, there were 698 cumulative person years of survival for analysis with a median follow-up of 4.6 years (interquartile range 4.2 to 5.2 years) and 37 MACCE (23.4 % of total). After covariate adjustment, generalized anxiety disorder was associated with MACCE (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.79, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.00-7.80, p = 0.049). The distress disorders were not significantly associated with MACCE risk (HR = 2.14; 95 % CI .92-4.95, p = 0.077) and neither were the fear-disorders (HR = 0.24, 95 % CI .05-1.20, p = 0.083). None of the symptom dimensions were significantly associated with MACCE. Conclusions Generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with MACCE at follow-up after CABG surgery. The findings encourage further research pertaining to generalized anxiety disorder, and theoretical conceptualizations of depression, general distress and anxiety in persons undergoing CABG surgery.BioPsychoSocial Medicine 05/2015; 9(14). DOI:10.1186/s13030-015-0041-5
23rd European Congress of Psychiatry Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 04/2015