Risk factors for hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites: relevance of serum sodium concentration
ABSTRACT Hyponatraemia is common in patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with remarkable changes in brain cells, particularly a reduction in myoinositol and other intracellular organic osmolytes related to the hypo-osmolality of the extracellular fluid. It has been recently suggested that hyponatraemia may be an important factor associated with the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). To test this hypothesis, we retrospectively analysed the incidence and predictive factors of overt HE using a database of 70 patients with cirrhosis included in a prospective study comparing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) vs large-volume paracentesis in the management of refractory of ascites. Variables used in the analysis included age, sex, previous history of HE, treatment assignment (TIPS vs large volume paracentesis plus albumin), treatment with diuretics, serum bilirubin, serum creatinine and serum sodium concentration. Laboratory parameters were measured at entry, at 1 month and every 3 months during follow-up and at the time of development of HE in patients who developed this complication. During a mean follow-up of 10 months, 50 patients (71%) developed 117 episodes of HE. In the whole population of patients, the occurrence of HE was independently associated with serum hyponatraemia, serum bilirubin and serum creatinine. In conclusion, in patients with refractory ascites, the occurrence of HE is related to the impairment of liver and renal function and presence of hyponatraemia.
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ABSTRACT: Kidney is an important organ to clear neurotoxic substance in circulation. However, it is still unknown about the effect of renal function impairment (RFI) on the mortality of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to identify 4932 cirrhotic patients with HE, hospitalized between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. The enrolled patients were followed up individually for 3 years to identify their 3-year mortalities. There were 411 (8.3%) patients with RFI and 4521 (91.7%) patients without RFI. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of RFI for 3-year mortality was 2.03 (95% CI, 1.82-2.27). In RFI group, there were 157 (38.2%) patients with acute renal failure (ARF), 61 (14.8%) with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), 93 (22.6%) with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 100 (24.3%) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Compared with the non-RFI group, the adjusted HR of ARF for 3-year mortality was 2.57 (95% CI, 2.17-3.06), CKD 1.93 (95% CI, 1.55-2.40), ESRD 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.57), and HRS 3.58 (95% CI, 2.78-4.63). Among ESRD patients, there were 99 patients receiving hemodialysis regularly. Compared with the CKD group, the adjusted HR of ESRD with hemodialysis for 3-year mortality was 0.664 (95% CI, 0.466-0.945). RFI increased the 3-year mortality of cirrhotic patients with HE, especially ARF and HRS. HE patients with ESRD receiving hemodialysis had better 3-year survival rate than those with CKD.Medicine 09/2014; 93(14):e79. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000079 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The AASLD/EASL Practice Guideline Subcommittee on Hepatic Encephalopathy are: Jayant A. Talwalkar (Chair, AASLD), Hari S. Conjeevaram, Michael Porayko, Raphael B. Merriman, Peter L. M. Jansen, and Fabien Zoulim. This guideline has been approved by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the European Association for the Study of the Liver and represents the position of both associations.Hepatology 08/2014; 60(2). DOI:10.1002/hep.27210 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dilutional hyponatremia is common in decompensated cirrhosis and can be successfully treated by tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist. Data were lacking regarding the effects of tolvaptan on cirrhotic patients with a Child-Pugh score of >10 and a serum sodium concentration of <120 mmol/L. We report a case of forties man with a 20-year history of chronic hepatitis B presenting with yellow urine and skin. Laboratory tests demonstrated prolonged prothrombin time, markedly elevated total bilirubin, severe hyponatremia, and a Child-Pugh score of >10. The patient was diagnosed with dilutional hyponatremia and was treated with recommended dosage tolvaptan at first. The serum concentration of sodium recover but the patient felt obviously thirsty. As the dosage of tolvaptan was decreased accordingly from 15 mg to 5 mg, the patient still maintained the ideal concentration of serum sodium. This case emphasizes that cirrhotic patient with higher Child-Pugh scores and serum sodium concentration of <120 mmol/L can be treated with lower dose of tolvaptan.