Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an emerging sexually transmitted infection.

Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 4.91). 07/2010; 24(12):1799-812. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833c11a5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since 2000 outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who denied injecting drug use have been reported from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia. Given the burden of liver disease, in particular HCV, on the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the rapid and significant rise in the incidence of HCV in the HIV-infected MSM population in high-income countries is alarming. This relates to a significant change in the epidemiology of HCV that has occurred, with HCV emerging as a sexually transmitted infection within this population. Work to date suggests that this permucosal HCV transmission results from high-risk sexual and noninjecting drug use behaviours, reopening the discussion on the importance of sexual transmission. Given this occurs almost exclusively in HIV-infected MSM, HIV probably has a critical role mediated either through behavioural and/or biological factors. Finally, the management of acute HCV in HIV infection is complicated by concomitant HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy. This review will synthesize the most recent epidemiological, immunological and management issues that have emerged as a result of the epidemic of acute HCV among HIV-infected MSM.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent data indicate that seroprevalence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among MSM is stabilizing in Amsterdam. However, little is known about the incidence of HCV re-infection in MSM who have cleared their HCV infection. We, therefore, studied the incidence of re-infection in HIV-infected MSM who were HCV RNA-negative following HCV treatment of acute primary infection. Our study population comprised HIV-infected MSM at two large HIV outpatient clinics in Amsterdam, who were previously diagnosed with a sexually transmitted acute HCV infection and tested HCV RNA-negative at the end of treatment. We defined HCV re-infection as detectable HCV RNA in individuals with an undetectable HCV RNA at the end of treatment accompanied by a switch in HCV genotype or clade. Person-time methods were used to calculate the incidence of re-infection. Fifty-six persons who became HCV RNA-negative during primary acute HCV treatment were included. Five of the 56 cases relapsed and were not analysed. Eleven persons were re-infected. The incidence of HCV re-infection in this group was 15.2 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval 8.0-26.5). The cumulative incidence was 33% within 2 years. An alarmingly high incidence of HCV re-infection was found in this group. This high re-infection rate indicates that current prevention measures should be discussed, frequent HCV RNA testing should be continued after successful treatment and, in case of possible relapse, clade typing should be performed to exclude re-infection.
    AIDS (London, England) 08/2011; 25(17):F21-7. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    Huisarts en wetenschap 01/2013; 56(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of "treatment as prevention" (TasP). Some of the questions regarding TasP strategies arise from the perceived difficulties in achieving and maintaining viral load (VL) suppression over time and the risk of emergence of viral resistance that could compromise future treatment options. This study was conducted to assess these questions in a resource-limited setting. We performed a retrospective observational study of HIV-infected patients diagnosed in the pre-HAART era on follow-up at a private center from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted from clinical charts. Analyses were performed to test for potential associations of selected variables with current virologic failure or use of third-line drugs. Of 619 patients on follow-up, 82 (13.2%) were diagnosed in the pre-HAART era. At the time of our study, 79 (96.3%) patients were on HAART, with a median duration of 14 years (IQR 12-15) of therapy, and exposure to mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors regimens in 47.8% of cases. Sixty-nine patients (87.3%) had undetectable VL, 37 (46.8%) never presented virologic failure, and 19 (24.1%) experienced only one failure. Thirteen patients (16.5%) were receiving third-line ART regimens, with an average of 2.7-fold more virologic failures than those on first- or second-line regimens (p = 0.007). Maintaining viral load suppression over time in resource-limited-settings is feasible.
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