The relationship between inflammatory markers and post stroke cognitive impairment.
ABSTRACT To determine whether there is a relationship between inflammatory markers (serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines) and post stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Patients were recruited from 4 sources: (1) the acute stroke unit of a general hospital, (2) an outpatient stroke prevention clinic, (3) a stroke rehabilitation unit in a specialized geriatric hospital, or (4) a stroke rehabilitation unit of a rehabilitation hospital. Patients meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and World Health Organization Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (WHO-MONICA) project criteria for stroke were invited to participate in this study within the first 5 to 31 days post stroke. Patients with subarachnoid or intracranial hemorrhage, decreased level of consciousness, severe aphasia or dysarthria, or a significant acute medical, neurological, or psychiatric illness were excluded. Clinical assessments included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognition, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for stroke severity, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) for depressive symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum concentrations of CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma).
A total of 48 patients with ischemic stroke (age [mean +/- SD] 71.6 +/- 13.2 years, 54.2% male, MMSE 26.4 +/- 3.8, NIHSS 6.8 +/- 4.0) were recruited within their first month post stroke. Backward stepwise elimination linear regression showed that higher concentrations of serum CRP (beta(CRP) = -0.46, p( CRP) = 0.002) predicted lower post stroke global cognition ([MMSE], F1,44 = 11.31, P = .002), with age (P = .92), level of education (P = .22), infarct side (P = 0.49), IL-6 (P = 0.36), and IFN-gamma (P = .57) removed from the final model.
A post stroke inflammatory response may be important in subacute, PSCI.
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ABSTRACT: The close relationship between stroke and dementia is an important health issue. Ischaemic stroke can facilitate the onset of vascular dementia as well as aggravate pre-existing cognitive decline. The onset of cognitive decline may become manifest immediately following the onset of ischaemic stroke, but often there is a delay in the development of cognitive decline after a stroke. This delay can be seen as a therapeutic time window allowing interventions to be applied to preserve cognition following stroke. Both neurodegenerative and vascular mechanisms are activated and probably result in overlapping processes within the neurovascular unit. This review focuses on the incidence and prevalence of cognitive decline following stroke, predisposing stroke aetiologies, pre-stroke decline, imaging factors and biomarkers. Outcomes are discussed in relation to timing of assessment and neuropsychological tests used for evaluation of cognitive decline in ischaemic stroke patients. Including such tests in routine evaluations of stroke patients after some weeks or months is recommended. Finally, an outlook on ongoing and planned intervention trials is added and some recommendations for future research are proposed.European Journal of Neurology 12/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/ene.12626 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.Nutrients 09/2014; 6(9):3624-3640. DOI:10.3390/nu6093624 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stroke variably activates interleukin- (IL-) 17 expression, reduces regulatory T cells, and induces oxidative stress, which may support neurodegeneration. Ischemic stroke patients were screened for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D)) and cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination). Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-23, and interferon- [IFN-] γ), anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPH), a measure of oxidative stress, were assayed from fasting serum. Of 47 subjects (age 71.8 ± 14.4 years, 36% female), 19 had depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), which was associated with poorer cognitive status (F 1,46 = 8.44, P = 0.006). IL-17 concentrations did not differ between subjects with and without depressive symptoms (F 1,46 = 8.44, P = 0.572); however, IL-17 was associated with poorer cognitive status in subjects with depressive symptoms (F 1,46 = 9.29, P = 0.004). In those subjects with depressive symptoms, IL-17 was associated with higher LPH (ρ = 0.518, P = 0.023) and lower IL-10 (ρ = -0.484, P = 0.036), but not in those without. In conclusion, poststroke depressive symptoms may be associated with cognitive vulnerability to IL-17 related pathways, involving an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity and increased oxidative stress.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:245210. DOI:10.1155/2014/245210 · 2.71 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.