Article

Femoral Vein Cannulation Performed by Residents: A Comparison Between Ultrasound-Guided and Landmark Technique in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Department of Anesthesiology, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.
Anesthesia and analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.42). 09/2010; 111(3):724-8. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e9c475
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Percutaneous cannulation of the femoral vein, in the pediatric age group, can be technically challenging, especially when performed by residents in training. We examined whether the use of real-time ultrasound guidance is superior to a landmark technique for femoral vein catheterization in children undergoing heart surgery.
Patients were prospectively randomized into 2 groups. In group LM, the femoral vein was cannulated using the traditional method of palpation of arterial pulse. In group US, cannulation was guided by real-time scanning with an ultrasound probe. The time to complete cannulation (primary outcome), success rate, number of needle passes, number of successful cannulations on first needle pass, and incidence of complications were compared between the 2 groups.
Forty-eight pediatric patients were studied. The time to complete cannulation was significantly shorter (155 [46-690] vs 370 [45-1620] seconds; P = 0.02) in group US versus group LM. The success rate was similar in both groups (95.8%). The number of needle passes was smaller (1 [1-8] vs 3 [1-21]; P = 0.001) and the number of successful cannulations on first needle pass higher (18 vs 6; P = 0.001) in group US compared with group LM. The incidence of femoral artery puncture was comparable between the 2 groups.
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the femoral vein, in pediatric patients, when performed by senior anesthesia residents, is superior to the landmark technique in terms of speed and number of needle passes, with remarkable improvement in first attempt success.

Full-text

Available from: Faraj W Abdallah, Jun 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
242 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians.
    Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 05/2014; 18(5):301-309. DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.132492
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation.
    11/2012; 2(1):48. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-2-48
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Femoral artery overlaps femoral vein by varying degrees distal to the inguinal ligament, which may result in difficult venous access and also increases the risk of arterial puncture.Objective To study the size of femoral vessels and the degree of overlap in children undergoing anesthesia using ultrasound at 1 and 3 cm distal to inguinal ligament.MethodsA prospective observational study, 84 children aged <7 years were recruited in six different age groups. An experienced anesthetist identified the femoral vessels and their overlap using ultrasound at two fixed points distal to the inguinal ligament. We also evaluated the correlation of skin puncture site marked as per Advanced Paediatric Life support (APLS) guidance using landmark technique with the ultrasound location of femoral vein beneath the same site.ResultsThe percentage of children with overlap of femoral vein by femoral artery increases from 5% to 60% as we move distal to the inguinal ligament. At 3 cm distal to inguinal ligament, the incidence of any degree of overlap was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in children <5 years. In 80% of children, the femoral vein was located by ultrasound beneath the skin puncture site as recommended by APLS guidelines.ConclusionA significant increase in femoral vein overlap occurs as we move distal to the inguinal ligament. There is one in five chance of failure to locate femoral vein by landmark technique. In children <2 years, a high approach to femoral vein cannulation under ultrasound guidance is recommended.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 07/2014; 24(11). DOI:10.1111/pan.12486 · 1.74 Impact Factor