V(D)J recombination: Born to be wild.
ABSTRACT Vertebrates employ V(D)J recombination to generate diversity for an adaptive immune response. Born of a transposon, V(D)J recombination could conceivably cause more trouble than its worth. However, of the two steps required for transposon mobility (excision and integration) this particular transposon's integration step appears mostly blocked in cells. The employment of a transposon as raw material to develop adaptive immunity was thus a less-risky choice than it might have been … but is it completely risk-free?
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 02/1999; 64:161-7.
Article: Autophosphorylation-dependent targeting of calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Activation and Thr286 autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulindependent kinase II (CaMKII) following Ca2+ influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors is essential for hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP), a widely investigated cellular model of learning and memory. Here, we show that NR2B, but not NR2A or NR1, subunits of NMDA receptors are responsible for autophosphorylation-dependent targeting of CaMKII. CaMKII and NMDA receptors colocalize in neuronal dendritic spines, and a CaMKII.NMDA receptor complex can be isolated from brain extracts. Autophosphorylation induces direct high-affinity binding of CaMKII to a 50 amino acid domain in the NR2B cytoplasmic tail; little or no binding is observed to NR2A and NR1 cytoplasmic tails. Specific colocalization of CaMKII with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in transfected cells depends on receptor activation, Ca2+ influx, and Thr286 autophosphorylation. Translocation of CaMKII because of interaction with the NMDA receptor Ca2+ channel may potentiate kinase activity and provide exquisite spatial and temporal control of postsynaptic substrate phosphorylation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1998; 273(33):20689-92. · 4.77 Impact Factor