The role of glutamate on the action of antidepressants.
ABSTRACT Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, chronic, recurrent mental illness that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Currently available antidepressants are known to affect the monoaminergic (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) systems in the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmission via the excitatory amino acid glutamate also plays an important role in the neurobiology and treatment of this disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients with MDD, suggesting the role of glutamate in the pathophysiology of treatment-resistant MDD. Furthermore, a number of preclinical studies demonstrated that the agents which act at glutamate receptors such as NMDA receptors, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) might have antidepressant-like activities in animal models of depression. In this article, the author reviews the role of glutamate in the neuron-glia communication induced by potential antidepressants.
Article: A novel target of action of minocycline in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells: translation initiation [corrected] factor eIF4AI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has potential activity for the treatment of several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. However, its mechanisms of action remain to be determined. We found that minocycline, but not tetracycline, significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that the endoplasmic reticulum protein inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors and several common signaling molecules (PLC-γ, PI3K, Akt, p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathways) might be involved in the active mechanism of minocycline. Moreover, we found that a marked increase of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4AI protein by minocycline, but not tetracycline, might be involved in the active mechanism for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. These findings suggest that eIF4AI might play a role in the novel mechanism of minocycline. Therefore, agents that can increase eIF4AI protein would be novel therapeutic drugs for certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e15430. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacological interventions to treat psychiatric illness have previously focused on modifying dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems to improve symptoms. However, imperfect understanding of the aetiology of these heterogeneous syndromes has been associated with poor treatment outcomes for many individuals. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress, inflammation, changes in glutamatergic pathways and neurotrophins play important roles in many psychiatric illnesses including mood disorders, schizophrenia and addiction. These novel insights into pathophysiology allow new treatment targets to be explored. Minocycline is an antibiotic that can modulate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Given that these mechanisms overlap with the newly understood pathophysiological pathways, minocycline has potential as an adjunctive treatment in psychiatry. To date there have been promising clinical indications that minocycline may be a useful treatment in psychiatry, albeit from small trials most of which were not placebo controlled. Case reports of individuals with schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms and bipolar depression have shown serendipitous benefits of minocycline treatment on psychiatric symptoms. Minocycline has been trialled in open-label or small randomized controlled trials in psychiatry. Results vary, with findings supporting use in schizophrenia, but showing less benefit for nicotine dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Given the limited data from rigorous clinical trials, further research is required. However, taken together, the current evidence suggests minocycline may be a promising novel therapy in psychiatry.CNS Drugs 04/2012; 26(5):391-401. · 4.80 Impact Factor