Neonatal nicotine exposure alters leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in the late postnatal period and adulthood in rats.
ABSTRACT Postnatal nicotine exposure causes precocious primary hypothyroidism and programs for overweight, hyperleptinemia and secondary hypothyroidism in adulthood. As leptin and thyroid hormones share the ability to increase energy expenditure, we studied the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on the leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of suckling and adult offspring.
Two days after delivery, osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating rats, and nicotine (NIC, 6 mg/kg/day s.c.) or saline (C) was administered for 14days. Offspring were killed at 15 and 180 days-old. Proteins belonging to leptin signaling were analyzed by Western blot. Significant differences had p<0.05.
In the hypothalamus, NIC offspring showed higher OB-R and pSTAT-3 content (+58%,+1.34x) at 15 days, and lower OB-R, JAK-2 and pSTAT-3 (-61%, -42%, -56%) at 180 days. In the pituitary gland, NIC offspring showed lower JAK-2 content (-52%) at 15 days, but no differences in adulthood. In the thyroid gland, the NIC group presented lower OB-R, JAK-2 and STAT-3 (-44%, -50%, -47%) and higher pSTAT-3 expression (+80%) at 15 days. At 180 days-old, NIC offspring presented higher thyroid OB-R (+1.54x) and lower pSTAT-3 content (-34%).
Neonatal primary hypothyroidism induced by maternal nicotine exposure during lactation may be partially explained by decreased leptin signaling in the thyroid, though the early stimulation of the central leptin pathway did not prevent the thyroid dysfunction. Long-term effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and thyroid appear to involve central and peripheral leptin resistance in adulthood.
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ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, the incidence of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome diseases has risen dramatically, becoming a global health crisis. Increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity are believed to represent the root causes of this dramatic rise. However, recent findings highlight the possible involvement of environmental obesogens, xenobiotic chemicals that can disrupt the normal developmental and homeostatic controls over adipogenesis and energy balance. Environmental estrogens, i.e. chemicals with estrogenic potential, have been reported to perturb adipogenic mechanisms using in vitro model systems, but other classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals are now coming under scrutiny as well. Organotins represent one class of widespread persistent organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties in both invertebrates and vertebrates. New data identify tributyltin chloride and triphenyltin chloride as nanomolar agonist ligands for retinoid X receptor (RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, nuclear receptors that play pivotal roles in lipid homeostasis and adipogenesis. The environmental obesogen hypothesis predicts that inappropriate receptor activation by organotins will lead directly to adipocyte differentiation and a predisposition to obesity and/or will sensitize exposed individuals to obesity and related metabolic disorders under the influence of the typical high-calorie, high-fat Western diet. The linking of organotin exposure to adipocyte differentiation and obesity opens an important new area of research into potential environmental influences on human health and disease.Endocrinology 07/2006; 147(6 Suppl):S50-5. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptin is a circulating hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue. Recent studies have shown leptin production by other tissues, including the placenta, stomach, and mammary tissues. Various reports have suggested that the anterior pituitary may have a role in the regulatory effects of leptin. We recently localized leptin in the human anterior pituitary, but analysis of leptin in rodent pituitary has not been previously reported. In this study we examined rat and mouse pituitary tissues and various cell lines for leptin by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Leptin receptor messenger RNA was also examined in these tissues by RT-PCR. Leptin was present in a small percentage of rat (4.8 +/- 0.7%) and mouse (7 +/- 2%) pituitary cells. Colocalization studies with leptin and pituitary hormones showed leptin expression mainly in TSH cells (24 +/- 2% of TSH cells in the rat pituitary and 31 +/- 1% of TSH cells in the mouse pituitary). A folliculo-stellate (FS) cell line, TtT/GF, also expressed leptin. The long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) was present in normal pituitary and in various pituitary cell lines, including FS, GH3, and alphaT3-1 cells. Treatment of GH3 and FS cells with leptin (1 x 10(-8) M) inhibited cell proliferation assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation in GH3, but not in FS, cells. These findings show for the first time that leptin is expressed in rat and mouse anterior pituitaries mainly by TSH cells and by a mouse FS cell line. The finding of leptin and of the long isoform of leptin receptor in normal rat and mouse pituitaries and in various cell lines implicates an autocrine/paracrine loop in the production and regulation of leptin and leptin receptor in the rodent pituitary.Endocrinology 01/2000; 141(1):333-9. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptin modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones (THs). We have studied the effect of acute and chronic leptin treatment upon liver mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity (mGPD), whose expression and activity are TH dependent. We performed 2 experiments: 1) acute leptin treatment - LepA: adult rats received a single leptin injection (8 microg/100 g BW); 2) chronic leptin treatment - LepC: adult rats received leptin (8 microg/100 g BW) daily, for 6 days. In both experiments, control groups were saline-treated. All rats were sacrificed 2 hours after the last dose. Liver mGPD activity was determined by colorimetric method. Liver D1 activity was measured by the release of (125)I from (125)I-rT3. Serum hormones were measured by RIA. LepA rats showed higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (+ 64%, p<0.05), free T4 (+ 34%, p<0.05), free T3 (+ 64%, p<0.05), and liver D1 activity (+ 85%, p<0.05), but no change in mGPD activity. Since THs increase mGPD activity, the unchanged level in the acute experiment is suggestive of an inhibitory role of leptin. LepC rats presented lower mGPD activity (-1.7-fold, p<0.05) and higher liver D1 activity (+ 32%, p<0.05), but no alteration in serum TSH and free THs. Our results show that leptin downregulates mGPD activity, mainly when hyperleptinemia is chronic.Hormone and Metabolic Research 01/2007; 39(12):867-870. · 2.15 Impact Factor