Neonatal nicotine exposure alters leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in the late postnatal period and adulthood in rats.
ABSTRACT Postnatal nicotine exposure causes precocious primary hypothyroidism and programs for overweight, hyperleptinemia and secondary hypothyroidism in adulthood. As leptin and thyroid hormones share the ability to increase energy expenditure, we studied the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on the leptin signaling in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of suckling and adult offspring.
Two days after delivery, osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating rats, and nicotine (NIC, 6 mg/kg/day s.c.) or saline (C) was administered for 14days. Offspring were killed at 15 and 180 days-old. Proteins belonging to leptin signaling were analyzed by Western blot. Significant differences had p<0.05.
In the hypothalamus, NIC offspring showed higher OB-R and pSTAT-3 content (+58%,+1.34x) at 15 days, and lower OB-R, JAK-2 and pSTAT-3 (-61%, -42%, -56%) at 180 days. In the pituitary gland, NIC offspring showed lower JAK-2 content (-52%) at 15 days, but no differences in adulthood. In the thyroid gland, the NIC group presented lower OB-R, JAK-2 and STAT-3 (-44%, -50%, -47%) and higher pSTAT-3 expression (+80%) at 15 days. At 180 days-old, NIC offspring presented higher thyroid OB-R (+1.54x) and lower pSTAT-3 content (-34%).
Neonatal primary hypothyroidism induced by maternal nicotine exposure during lactation may be partially explained by decreased leptin signaling in the thyroid, though the early stimulation of the central leptin pathway did not prevent the thyroid dysfunction. Long-term effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and thyroid appear to involve central and peripheral leptin resistance in adulthood.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An emerging literature suggests that environmental chemicals may play a role in the development of childhood obesity and metabolic disorders, especially when exposure occurs early in life. OBJECTIVE: Here we assess the association between these health outcomes and exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as part of a broader effort to develop a research agenda to better understand the role of environmental chemicals as potential risk factors for obesity and metabolic disorders. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to March 8, 2012 for epidemiological and experimental animal studies related to maternal smoking or nicotine exposure during pregnancy and childhood obesity or metabolic disorders at any age. A total of 101 studies, 83 in humans and 18 in animals, were identified as the primary literature. DISCUSSION: Current epidemiological data support a positive association between maternal smoking and increased risk of obesity or overweight in offspring. The data are strongly suggestive of a causal relation, however, the possibility that the association is due to unmeasured residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. This conclusion is supported by findings from laboratory animals exposed to nicotine during development. The existing human literature does not provide support for an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and type 1 diabetes in offspring. Too few human studies have assessed outcomes related to type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome to reach conclusions based on patterns of findings. There may be a number of mechanistic pathways important for the development of aberrant metabolic outcomes following perinatal exposure to cigarette smoke, which remain largely unexplored. CONCLUSIONS: From a toxicological perspective, the linkages between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight/obesity provide proof-of-concept of how early-life exposure to an environmental toxicant can be a risk factor for childhood obesity.Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2012; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been increasing interest in the concept that exposures to environmental chemicals may be contributing factors to the epidemics of diabetes and obesity. On 11-13 January 2011, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) organized a workshop to evaluate the current state of the science on these topics of increasing public health concern. The main objective of the workshop was to develop recommendations for a research agenda after completing a critical analysis of the literature for humans and experimental animals exposed to certain environmental chemicals. The environmental exposures considered at the workshop were arsenic, persistent organic pollutants, maternal smoking/nicotine, organotins, phthalates, bisphenol A, and pesticides. High-throughput screening data from Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) were also considered as a way to evaluate potential cellular pathways and generate -hypotheses for testing which and how certain chemicals might perturb biological processes related to diabetes and obesity. Overall, the review of the existing literature identified linkages between several of the environmental exposures and type 2 diabetes. There was also support for the "developmental obesogen" hypothesis, which suggests that chemical exposures may increase the risk of obesity by altering the differentiation of adipocytes or the development of neural circuits that regulate feeding behavior. The effects may be most apparent when the developmental exposure is combined with consumption of a high-calorie, high-carbohydrate, or high-fat diet later in life. Research on environmental chemical exposures and type 1 diabetes was very limited. This lack of research was considered a critical data gap. In this workshop review, we outline the major themes that emerged from the workshop and discuss activities that NIEHS/NTP is undertaking to address research recommendations. This review also serves as an introduction to an upcoming series of articles that review the literature regarding specific exposures and outcomes in more detail.Environmental Health Perspectives 02/2012; 120(6):779-89. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Calcium influences energy metabolism regulation, causing body weight loss. Because maternal nicotine exposure during lactation programs for obesity, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hypothyroidism, we decided to evaluate the possible effect of dietary calcium supplementation on these endocrine dysfunctions in this experimental model. Osmotic minipumps containing nicotine solution (N: 6 mg/kg per day for 14 days) or saline (C) were s.c. implanted in lactating rats 2 days after giving birth (P2). At P120, N and C offspring were subdivided into four groups: 1) C - standard diet; 2) C with calcium supplementation (CCa, 10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow); 3) N - standard diet; and 4) N with calcium supplementation (NCa). Rats were killed at P180. As expected, N offspring showed higher visceral and total body fat, hyperleptinemia, lower hypothalamus leptin receptor (OB-R) content, hyperinsulinemia, and higher IR index. Also, higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression (+51%), catecholamine content (+37%), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (+76%) were observed in N offspring. Dietary calcium supplementation reversed adiposity, hyperleptinemia, OB-R underexpression, IR, TH overexpression, and vitamin D. However, this supplementation did not reverse hypothyroidism. In NCa offspring, Sirt1 mRNA was lower in visceral fat (-37%) and higher in liver (+42%). In conclusion, dietary calcium supplementation seems to revert most of the metabolic syndrome parameters observed in adult offspring programed by maternal nicotine exposure during lactation. It is conceivable that the reduction in fat mass per se, induced by calcium therapy, is the main mechanism that leads to the increment of insulin action.Journal of Endocrinology 06/2011; 210(3):349-59. · 4.06 Impact Factor