The collagen-breakdown product N-acetyl-Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-alpha-PGP) does not interact directly with human CXCR1 and CXCR2.
ABSTRACT Neutrophils transmigrate from the blood into inflamed tissue via the interaction of chemokines produced in this tissue with chemokine receptors, such as CXCR1 and CXCR2, that are expressed on the membranes of neutrophils. Subsequently, activation of neutrophils will in turn lead to increased tissue damage and thereby enhanced clinical symptoms of inflammatory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. Besides chemokines, also the collagen-breakdown product N-acetyl-Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-alpha-PGP) attracts neutrophils. In a recent article (Weathington et al., 2006) it was suggested that N-alpha-PGP exerts its effect via CXCR1 and CXCR2. In this study, we show that N-alpha-PGP, in contrast to CXCL8, does not directly activate or interact with CXCR1 or CXCR2. N-alpha-PGP was not able to displace the radioligand [(125)I]CXCL8 from CXCR1 and CXCR2 expressing HEK293T cells or neutrophils. In addition, N-alpha-PGP did not displace the radioligand [(3)H]-SB265610, a CXCR2 antagonist, from CXCR2 expressing cells. Furthermore, N-alpha-PGP was not able to activate G protein signalling in cells expressing CXCR1 and CXCR2. N-alpha-PGP was also not able to recruit beta-arrestin2, an intracellular scaffolding protein involved in G protein-independent signalling, in cells expressing CXCR2. These studies indicate that N-alpha-PGP is not a ligand of CXCR1 or CXCR2.
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ABSTRACT: Keratinocytes are the predominant cell type in epidermis, and are primarily responsible for the epithelialization phase of wound healing. Previous studies by our group showed a positive correlation between IL-8 concentration and delayed healing of porcine cutaneous partial-thickness wounds. Interleukin-8 and collagen-breakdown product N-acetyl-Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) are known as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils during inflammation. The activity of both molecules is dependent on chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. In addition to neutrophils, keratinocytes also express CXCR1 and CXCR2. Here we investigated the effects of IL-8 and PGP on keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Our results showed that IL-8 up to 100 ng/mL does not have any significant impact on keratinocyte proliferation or migration. ECM-derived tripeptide PGP chemotactically attracts neutrophils but not keratinocytes. PGP strongly inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and migration in a cell-type specific manner. Thus, collagen breakdown product PGP plays a key role in modulating both the inflammatory and epithelialization phases of wound healing.Wound Repair and Regeneration 11/2011; 19(6):718-26. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A role for the collagen-derived tripeptide, N-acetyl proline-glycine-proline (NAc-PGP), in neutrophil recruitment in chronic airway inflammatory diseases, including COPD and cystic fibrosis, has recently been delineated. Due to structural similarity to an important motif for interleukin-8 (CXCL8) binding to its receptor, NAc-PGP binds to CXCR1/2 receptors, leading to neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. In an effort to develop novel CXCL8 antagonists, we describe the synthesis of four chiral isomers of NAc-PGP (NAc-L-Pro-Gly-L-Pro (LL-NAc-PGP), NAc-L-Pro-Gly-D-Pro (LD-NAc-PGP), NAc-D-Pro-Gly-L-Pro (DL-NAc-PGP), and NAc-D-Pro-Gly-D-Pro (DD-NAc-PGP)), characterize them by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, compare their structures to the equivalent region of CXCL8, and test them as potential antagonists of ll-NAc-PGP and CXCL8. We find that LL-NAc-PGP superimposes onto the CXCR1/2 contacting E(29)S(30)G(31)P(32) region of CXCL8 (0.59A rmsd for heavy atoms). In contrast, DD-NAc-PGP has an opposing orientation of key functional groups as compared to the G(31)P(32) region of CXCL8. As a consequence, DD-NAc-PGP binds CXCR1/2, as demonstrated by competition with radiolabeled CXCL8 binding in a radioreceptor assay, yet acts as a receptor antagonist as evidenced by inhibition of CXCL8 and LL-NAc-PGP mediated neutrophil chemotaxis. The ability of DD-NAc-PGP to prevent the activation of CXC receptors indicates that DD-NAc-PGP may serve as a lead compound for the development of CXCR1/2 inhibitors. In addition, this study further proves that using a different technical approach, namely preincubation of NAc-PGP instead of simultaneous addition of NAc-PGP with radiolabeled CXCL8, the direct binding of NAc-PGP to the CXCL8 receptor is evident.European journal of pharmacology 03/2011; 668(3):435-42. · 2.59 Impact Factor
- Blood 02/2013; 121(9):1489-91. · 9.78 Impact Factor