A novel secretagogue increases cardiac contractility by enhancement of L-type Ca2+ current
ABSTRACT N'1-(3,3,6,8-tetramethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yliden)-2-cyanoethanohydrazide (TTYC) increases secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in GLUTag cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine if TTYC exerts positive inotropic effects on isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes and in vivo heart in anesthetized rats, and if so to further define the potential mechanism of action. Contractility was assessed in vitro using changes in fractional shortening (FS) of myocyte sarcomere length and in vivo using changes in the velocity of left ventricular pressure. Changes in L-type Ca(2+) current of ventricular myocytes were evaluated using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. TTYC increased FS of myocyte sarcomere length in a concentration-dependent manner. The positive inotropic effect was not abrogated by beta-adrenergic blockade (propranolol) or protein kinase A inhibition. TTYC enhanced peak L-type Ca(2+) current in a voltage-dependent manner (current amplitudes increased by 4.0-fold at -10 mV and 1.5-fold at +10 mV). Voltage-dependence of steady-state activation of L-type Ca(2+) current was shifted by 15 mV in the negative direction. Inactivation time course of the L-type Ca(2+) currents at voltages of -10 to 20 mV was significantly slowed by 0.3 microM TTYC. In vivo studies demonstrated that TTYC increased cardiac contractility in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TTYC is a novel L-type Ca(2+) current activator with positive cardiac inotropic effects. Negative shifting of the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+) current activation and reduced inactivation are two mechanisms responsible for the enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current that contribute to the positive inotropic effects.
Conference Paper: An investigation of GaAs MMIC high power limiters for circuit protection[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present an investigation of GaAs MMIC semiconductor limiters which can be fabricated on a standard MMIC process. This investigation, which included high power vector measurements of S-parameters over lime, led to the design of a highly compact limiter integrated directly onto an FM-CW radar MMIC. As we demonstrate, the limiter significantly improved the lifetime of the FM-CW radar MMIC when exposed to both single and multiple short, high power pulses of microwave energyMicrowave Symposium Digest, 1997., IEEE MTT-S International; 07/1997
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ABSTRACT: Delayed cardiac repolarization is an established risk factor for proarrhythmia and Torsades-de-Pointes (TdeP) that is typically measured in vitro during slow, regular stimulation. We have developed an alternative, novel, and rapid cellular-based approach for predicting drug-induced proarrhythmia that detects changes in electrical refractoriness based on mechanical responses (measured optically) during increasingly rapid trains of stimulation interspersed with pauses (mimicking the clinically observed short-long-short (SLS) stimulation sequence associated with the TdeP initiation).Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods 03/2011; 64(1):68-73. DOI:10.1016/j.vascn.2011.03.005 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac toxicity is a major concern in drug development and it is imperative that clinical candidates are thoroughly tested for adverse effects earlier in the drug discovery process. In this report, we investigate the utility of an impedance-based microelectronic detection system in conjunction with mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for assessment of compound risk in the drug discovery process. Beating of cardiomyocytes was measured by a recently developed microelectronic-based system using impedance readouts. We used mouse stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to obtain dose-response profiles for over 60 compounds, including ion channel modulators, chronotropic/ionotropic agents, hERG trafficking inhibitors and drugs known to induce Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias. This system sensitively and quantitatively detected effects of modulators of cardiac function, including some compounds missed by electrophysiology. Pro-arrhythmic compounds produced characteristic profiles reflecting arrhythmia, which can be used for identification of other pro-arrhythmic compounds. The time series data can be used to identify compounds that induce arrhythmia by complex mechanisms such as inhibition of hERG channels trafficking. Furthermore, the time resolution allows for assessment of compounds that simultaneously affect both beating and viability of cardiomyocytes. Microelectronic monitoring of stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte beating provides a high throughput, quantitative and predictive assay system that can be used for assessment of cardiac liability earlier in the drug discovery process. The convergence of stem cell technology with microelectronic monitoring should facilitate cardiac safety assessment.British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2011; 165(5):1424-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01623.x · 4.84 Impact Factor