Akt is the downstream target of GRP78 in mediating cisplatin resistance in ER stress-tolerant human lung cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Cisplatin [cis-diaminodichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP)] is the cornerstone of lung cancer chemotherapy. However, its efficacy is limited due to the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. This study was designed to uncover the mechanisms under CDDP resistance in lung cancer cells involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress tolerance-induced and GRP78-dependant Akt activation. In this study we established ER stress-tolerant (ERST) human lung cancer lines H460et and A549et. We found that the ERST Lung cancer cells are resistant to CDDP treatment. We further showed that, compared to the parental cell lines, H460et and A549et show significantly increased GRP78 and phospho(p)-Akt levels. And phosphorylation of Akt, which can be regulated by GRP78, is essential to the ERST-associated CDDP resistance. Our findings identify a new mechanism of regulating Akt activity and a new mechanism through which CDDP resistance is formed in lung cancer cells.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cisplatin [cis-diaminodichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP)] is one of the most widely used and effective therapeutic agents for many kinds of cancers. However, its efficiency is limited due to development of drug resistance. In this study, we showed that CDDP resistance was associated with AKT1 overexpression and gene amplification in human lung cancer cells that acquired the drug resistance. We showed that AKT1 forced expression in the cells was sufficient to render the cells CDDP resistant, and that AKT1 inhibition by its dominant negative mutant reversed the CDDP-resistant cells to be CDDP sensitive. These results show that AKT1 activity is essential for regulating CDDP resistance in cultured lung cancer cells. To study whether these results were correlated with human lung cancer tumors, we randomly selected tumor samples from human lung cancer patients to study the correlation of AKT activation and CDDP resistance in clinical tumor samples. We showed that AKT activation was highly related to CDDP chemosensitivity in human tumor tissues. Our results further showed that AKT1 induced lung cancer cells to become resistant to CDDP through the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. These studies conclude that AKT amplification and the mTOR pathway play an important role in human lung cancer cells acquiring CDDP resistance, which represents a new mechanism for acquiring CDDP resistance and a potential novel therapeutic target for overcoming CDDP resistance in human cancer in the future.Cancer Research 08/2007; 67(13):6325-32. · 8.65 Impact Factor
Article: How IRE1 reacts to ER stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The long-awaited structure of the effector portion of IRE1, the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer, is published in this issue of Cell (Lee et al., 2008). This structure provides new insight into the mysterious coupling of kinase and endoribonuclease activities in the oldest, most-conserved branch of the unfolded protein response in eukaryotes.Cell 02/2008; 132(1):24-6. · 31.96 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Akt contributes to tumorigenesis by inhibiting apoptosis. Here we establish that Akt is required for normal cell proliferation and susceptibility to oncogenesis independently of its antiapoptotic activity. Partial ablation of Akt activity by deleting Akt1 inhibits cell proliferation and oncogenesis. These effects are compounded by deleting both Akt1 and Akt2. In vivo, Akt1 null mice are resistant to MMTV-v-H-Ras-induced tumors and to skin carcinogenesis. Thus, partial ablation of Akt activity is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Akt deficiency on cell proliferation and oncogenesis is p53 independent but mTORC1 dependent. Surprisingly, upon mTORC1 hyperactivation, the reduction in Akt activity does not impair cell proliferation and susceptibility to oncogenic transformation; thus, Akt may mediate these processes exclusively via mTORC1.Cancer Cell 11/2006; 10(4):269-80. · 24.76 Impact Factor