The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.
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"Therefore, CN e detection is very important in protecting both human health and the environment [11e13]. Some traditional methods, such as mass spectrometry  , quartz crystal mass monitor , titrimetric methods , gas chromatography , electrochemical methods , atomic absorption spectrometry , and flow injection analysis technique  , have been developed for quantitative analysis of CN "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a colorimetric and fluorescent cyanide probe based on crosslinked polymer microspheres functionalized with a protonated merocyanine. The functionalised microspheres were prepared by free radical polymerization using 4-((E)-2-[(4-hydroxylphenyl) ethenyl-1-allyl pyridinium bromide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and azobisisobutylnitrile as the radical initiator. Upon introducing CN– to a suspension of the functionalised microspheres in ethanol/H2O (9:1, v/v), a change from yellow to red and a decrease in fluorescence intensity at 497 nm were immediately observed. This CN– probe can be reversed many times, which is cost efficient and beneficial to the environment. Analytical application of the functionlised microspheres to measure CN– concentration in spiked water samples was explored with good recoveries. Thus, the colorimetric and fluorescent CN− probe has high potential for the ultrasensitive detection of CN− in real samples.
Dyes and Pigments 05/2015; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.dyepig.2015.01.015 · 3.97 Impact Factor
"It remained stable in the freezer for months. Ma and Dasgupta (2010) did not mention NMR in their paper in which they described the methods for HCN detection. The secretion of H. gabrielis is unusual in that it contains himantarine (7), which is a novel natural product (the name is proposed by the authors). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.
The Science of Nature 08/2013; 100(9). DOI:10.1007/s00114-013-1086-6 · 2.10 Impact Factor
"Cyanide can be found in food (Vetter, 2000), smoke from fires (Becker, 1985; Brenner et al., 2010a; Purser et al., 1984), and cigarettes (Xu et al., 2011, 2012), and industrial facilities (Ma and Dasgupta, 2010; Smith et al., 2010; Zdrojewicz et al., 1996). It is easily procured and could be used as a weapon of mass destruction (Viswanath and Ghosh, 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning.