Prenatal findings in a fetus with contiguous gene syndrome caused by deletion of Xp22.3 that includes locus for X-linked recessive type of chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1)
ABSTRACT The X-linked recessive type of chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1) is a skeletal disorder that is characterized by stippled calcification at an epiphyseal nucleus and the surrounding soft tissue, short stature and an unusual face because of nasal hypoplasia. In most of the patients, this condition is noted after birth because of a characteristic face or respiratory problems. Here, we report a fetus with CDPX1. Two-dimensional ultrasound examination revealed unexplained polyhydramnios and a male fetus. Fetal biometry showed shortened long bones. Three-dimensional ultrasonography clearly demonstrated a hypoplastic nose with a depressed nasal bridge and contracture of wrists and fingers. Chromosome analysis of the amniotic fluid cells revealed the 46,Y,del(X)(p22.3) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a deletion of subtelomeric sequences at the Xpter and STS gene, but not a deletion of the KAL gene. The genomic copy number analysis demonstrated terminal deletion of 8.33 Mb that included SHOX, CSF2RA, XG, ARSE, NLGN4 and STS genes. We think that our case presents typical features of a fetus with this disorder and will be of great help in prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.
Article: Sulfate in fetal development[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 03/2011; 22(6):653-9. DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.03.004 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The regulation of genome architecture is essential for a variety of fundamental cellular phenomena that underlie the complex orchestration of mammalian development. The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling protein ATRX is emerging as a key regulatory component of nucleosomal dynamics and higher order chromatin conformation. Here we provide an overview of the role of ATRX at chromatin and during development, and discuss recent studies exposing a repertoire of ATRX functions at heterochromatin, in gene regulation, and during mitosis and meiosis. Exciting new progress on several fronts suggest that ATRX operates in histone variant deposition and in the modulation of higher order chromatin structure. Not surprisingly, dysfunction or absence of ATRX protein has devastating consequences on embryonic development and leads to human disease.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 08/2011; 89(5):435-44. DOI:10.1139/o11-038 · 2.35 Impact Factor
- Prenatal Diagnosis 10/2012; 32(10):919-20. DOI:10.1002/pd.3944 · 3.27 Impact Factor