Prevalence and correlates of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in male injection drug users in Iran.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Archives of Iranian medicine (Impact Factor: 1.11). 07/2010; 13(4):318-23.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aim of the study was to evaluate the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection and associated risk behaviors among Injection Drug Users in Detention, Tehran, Iran.
A cross-sectional survey included 499 male Injection Drug Users arrested by police during a predetermined police sweep in Tehran (February, 2006). At the temporary detention center, they were screened using a urine test and a physical examination for injection marks. Those who were identified as injectors were sent to the rehabilitation center for 3 months. A questionnaire was filled out for each individual by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV and HCV testing. The variables associated with HIV/HCV coinfection at a significance level of P<0.10 were considered in multivariate analysis.
Of the 417 participants, 100 (24.0%) had HIV/HCV coinfection (95%CI 19.9 - 28.4). Factors independently associated with HIV/HCV coinfection included history of using opioid in jail, and age (P<0.05). There were not any association between other demographic characteristics (marital status, birthplace, residence, and education), type and years of drug abuse, age of first injection, years of injection, sharing needles inside and outside of jail, injection in jail, history of tattooing, any sexual behavior, and history of sexually transmitted diseases with HIV/HCV coinfection (P>0.05).
This study supports that incarceration is contributing to the increased spread of HIV/HCV coinfection. So, there is urgent need for effective harm reduction programs, particularly among incarcerated Injection Drug Users.

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is increasingly recognized as a major global health problem. Illicit injection drug use is an important risk factor for the rising hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in IR Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness (total quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained) of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program) in prevention of HCV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). A number of Markov models were developed to model morbidity and mortality among IDUs. The input data used in modeling were collected by a self-reported method from 259 IDUs before registration and one year after MMT and also from previous studies. One way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were done to show the effects of uncertainty in parameters on number of life years and QALYs saved. The expected consequences were estimated using a life-time time horizon for the two strategies including implementation and not implementation of the MMT program. Our model estimated that total number of discounted life years lived per IDU with and without the MMT program would be 5.15 (5.05 - 5.25) and 4.63 (4.42 - 4.81), respectively. The model also estimated that total number of discounted QALYs lived per IDU with and without the MMT program would be 4.11 (3.86 - 4.41) and 2.45 (2.17 - 2.84). Simulation results indicated that all differences in life years and QALYs lived between the two strategies were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Based on our model, total discounted life years and QALYs saved in a cohort of 1000 IDUs were 1790 (1520 - 2090) and 1590 (1090- 2090), respectively. Considering the high prevalence of illicit injecting drug use in Iran and MMT effectiveness in prevention of HCV infection, it is necessary to develop MMT centers at regional and national levels.
    02/2014; 16(2):e13484. DOI:10.5812/ircmj.13484
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13-2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14-0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02-0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31-0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 01/2013; 4:181. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00181
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    ABSTRACT: The Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education of Iran has recently announced an estimated figure of 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). The aim of this study was to pilot a national program using demographics, types of drug abuse and prevalence of blood-borne infections among IDUs. In order to elicit data on demographics, types of drug abuse and prevalence of blood-borne infections among IDUs, a questionnaire was designed in the Bureau of Mental-Social Health and Addiction in collaboration with Iran's Drug Control Headquarters of the Police Department. Therapeutical alliance of addiction in Shafagh Center was based on Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT). Among 402 reported IDUs most of them were male, single and in age range of 20 to 39 years old with 72.7% history of imprisonment. Most of them had elementary and high school education and a history of addiction treatment. The majority were current users of opioid, heroin and crack. The prevalence of blood-borne infections was 65.9% and 18.8% for HCV and HIV/AIDS infections, respectively. Prevention programs about harm reduction, treatment and counseling should include young IDUs as a core focus of their intervention structure.
    Iranian Journal of Public Health 06/2013; 42(6):588-93. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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