Trends in incidence and survival of pediatric and adolescent patients with germ cell tumors in the United States, 1975 to 2006

Division of Pediatric Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.9). 10/2010; 116(20):4882-91. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.25454
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors with uncertain etiology. In the current study, data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to evaluate trends in incidence and survival of GCTs in boys and girls ages ≤19 years. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have evaluated trends in pediatric GCTs. Results from these analyses may provide clues to the etiology of GCTs.
Frequencies, incidence rates, and 5-year relative survival rates stratified by sex were evaluated overall and by demographic subgroups based on age (birth to 9 years and 10-19 years), race (white, black, and other), and ethnicity (non-Hispanic and Hispanic) as sample size permitted.
In whites, the incidence of GCTs was lower for females than males in the 10-year to 19-year age group (rate ratio [RR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.42-0.53), whereas the rates were similar in the age group for birth to 9 years. In contrast, incidence rates were higher in black females than in black males in both age groups (RR, 2.01 [95%CI, 1.08-3.84] in those ages birth to 9 years; RR, 3.30 [95% CI, 2.13-5.28] in those ages 10-19 years). The incidence of ovarian GCT was significantly higher in Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic girls in the groups aged 10 to 19 years. Incidence rates increased during the study period in boys ages 10 to 19 years (annual percentage change [APC], 1.2; 95% CI, 0.4-2.1) and girls ages birth to 9 years (APC, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.3-2.5).
The incidence of pediatric GCTs in the United States appears to be increasing only in certain subgroups, suggesting that the etiology is not completely overlapping in all age groups. Differences in incidence patterns by race and ethnicity merit further investigation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To risk stratify malignant extracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs). Data from seven GCT trials conducted by the Children's Oncology Group (United States) or the Children's Cancer and Leukemia Group (United Kingdom) between 1985 and 2009 were merged to create a data set of patients with stage II to IV disease treated with platinum-based therapy. A parametric cure model was used to evaluate the prognostic importance of age, tumor site, stage, histology, tumor markers, and treatment regimen and estimate the percentage of patients who achieved long-term disease-free (LTDF) survival in each subgroup of the final model. Validation of the model was conducted using the bootstrap method. In multivariable analysis of 519 patients with GCTs, stage IV disease (P = .001), age ≥ 11 years (P < .001), and tumor site (P < .001) were significant predictors of worse LTDF survival. Elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥ 10,000 ng/mL was associated with worse outcome, whereas pure yolk sac tumor (YST) was associated with better outcome, although neither met criteria for statistical significance. The analysis identified a group of patients age > 11 years with either stage III to IV extragonadal tumors or stage IV ovarian tumors with predicted LTDF survival < 70%. A bootstrap procedure showed retention of age, tumor site, and stage in > 94%, AFP in 12%, and YST in 27% of the replications. Clinical trial data from two large national pediatric clinical trial organizations have produced a new evidence-based risk stratification of malignant pediatric GCTs that identifies a poor-risk group warranting intensified therapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.58.3369 · 17.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pediatric and young adult central nervous system (CNS) germinomas have favorable cure rates. However, long-term follow-up data are limited because of the rarity of this tumor. We report the long-term overall survival (OS) and causes of late mortality for these patients. Data between 1973 and 2005 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were analyzed. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed on 5-year survivors of childhood CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors (GGCTs) and nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using US population data to compare observed versus expected all-cause death and death from stroke. Cumulative incidence was calculated using a competing risk model. Four hundred five GGCTs and 94 NGGCTs cases were eligible. OS at 20 and 30 years for GGCTs was 84.1% and 61.9%, respectively, and was 86.7% for NGGCTs at both time points. Five-year survivors of GGCTs and NGGCTs experienced a 10-fold increase in mortality risk compared with their peers (SMR, 10.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.71-13.76 vs SMR, 10.39;95% CI, 4.83-19.73, respectively). Five-year survivors GGCTs also experienced a nearly 59-fold increase in risk of death from stroke (SMR, 58.93; 95% CI, 18.72-142.10). At 25 years, the cumulative incidence of death due to cancer and subsequent malignancy was 16% and 6.0%, respectively. Although CNS germinomas have favorable cure rates, late recurrences, subsequent malignancies, and stroke significantly affect long-term survival. Close attention to long-term follow-up with assessment of stroke risk factors is recommended. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    Neuro-Oncology 11/2014; 17(5). DOI:10.1093/neuonc/nou311 · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers. The incidence rate has increased in some populations or subgroups. However, only a few recent publications on epidemiologic data showing the trends in incidence of pediatric GCTs are available. We analyzed the incidence rates, time trends, and survival for 1366 GCTs in children 0 to 14 years old registered in the nationwide, population-based German Childhood Cancer Registry in 1987-2011. The incidence rate of GCTs was slightly higher in girls (age-standardized rate: girls, 5.3; boys, 4.4 per million). A bimodal age distribution was seen. In children aged <1 year, the highest age-specific incidence rates were seen for girls with GCTs in the pelvis (12.7 per million) and for boys with GCTs in the testis (9.5 per million). For 10- to 14-year-old boys, the tumors occurred most often in the central nervous system (3.1 per million); for girls, the most common site was in the ovaries (4.5 per million). Only the incidence rate for ovarian GCTs increased statistically significantly. The 5- and 20-year survival probabilities for the patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2010 were 92% and 90%, respectively. Survival rates improved notably for intracranial and extragonadal GCTs from 1987 to 2006. The localization and histology of the GCTs varied between the genders and age groups. During 1987 to 2011, the incidence rate increased only for ovarian GCTs. The increase, however, may be due to changes in reporting. The survival rates were excellent. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 12/2014; 135(1). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1989 · 5.30 Impact Factor