The effects of long- or medium-chain fat diets on glucose tolerance and myocellular content of lipid intermediates in rats.
ABSTRACT Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle upon high-fat (HF) feeding is the resultant of fatty acid uptake and oxidation and is associated with insulin resistance. As medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are preferentially β-oxidized over long-chain fatty acids, we examined the effects of medium-chain TAGs (MCTs) and long-chain TAGs (LCTs) on muscle lipid storage and whole-body glucose tolerance. Rats fed a low-fat (LF), HFLCT, or an isocaloric HFMCT diet displayed a similar body weight gain over 8 weeks of treatment. Only HFLCT increased myocellular TAG (42.3 ± 4.9, 71.9 ± 6.7, and 48.5 ± 6.5 µmol/g for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P < 0.05) and long-chain acylcarnitine content (P < 0.05). Neither HF diet increased myocellular diacylglycerol (DAG) content. Intraperitoneal (IP) glucose tolerance tests (1.5 g/kg) revealed a significantly decreased glucose tolerance in the HFMCT compared to the HFLCT-fed rats (802 ± 40, 772 ± 18, and 886 ± 18 area under the curve for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P < 0.05). Finally, no differences in myocellular insulin signaling after bolus insulin injection (10 U/kg) were observed between LF, HFLCT, or HFMCT-fed rats. These results show that accumulation of TAGs and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle in the absence of body weight gain do not impede myocellular insulin signaling or whole-body glucose intolerance.
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ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1 (PPARGC1), a coactivator regulating the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, is downregulated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in their first-degree relatives. Whether this downregulation is a cause or effect of early aberrations in the development of insulin resistance, such as disturbances in fat metabolism, is unknown. We examined whether lipid-induced insulin resistance was associated with downregulation of expression of skeletal muscle genes involved in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. Nine healthy lean male subjects underwent a 6-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with simultaneous infusion of either a lipid emulsion or glycerol as a control. Blood was sampled at regular time points and muscle biopsies were taken before and after every test. Intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) content was determined by Oil Red O staining and gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Lipid infusion resulted in a approximately 2.7-fold increase in plasma NEFA levels and a 31+/-6% decrease in insulin sensitivity (p=0.001). The infusion of lipids resulted in a approximately 1.6-fold increase in IMTG (p=0.02), whereas during the clamp with glycerol infusion IMTG tended to decrease to approximately 53% of preinfusion levels (p=0.065). Lipid infusion decreased PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and PPARA expression to approximately 61, 77 and approximately 52% of basal values respectively, whereas expression of uncoupling protein 3 was upregulated 1.8-fold (all p<0.05). Acute elevation of plasma NEFA levels, leading to muscular fat accumulation and insulin resistance, downregulates PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and PPARA expression, suggesting that the decrease in PPARGC1 expression observed in the (pre)diabetic state may be the result, rather than the cause of lipid-induced insulin resistance.Diabetologia 10/2006; 49(10):2419-26. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-fat (HF) diet feeding can induce obesity and metabolic disorders in rodents that resemble the human metabolic syndrome. However, this dietary intervention is not standardized, and the HF-induced phenotype varies distinctly among different studies. The question which HF diet type is best to model the metabolic deterioration seen in human obesity remains unclear. Therefore, in this review, metabolic data obtained with different HF diet approaches are compiled. Both whole-body and organ-specific diet effects are analyzed. On the basis of these results, we conclude that animal fats and omega-6/omega-9-containing plant oils can be used to generate an obese and insulin-resistant phenotype in rodents, whereas fish oil-fed animals do not develop these disorders. Looking at the present data, it does not seem possible to define an ideal HF diet, and an exact definition of diet composition and a thorough metabolic characterization of the HF diet effects in a researcher's specific laboratory setting remains essential for metabolic studies with this model.Obesity 04/2007; 15(4):798-808. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocytes from the periportal (afferent) and perivenous (efferent) zones of the liver parenchyma differ in their enzyme content and subcellular structures and thus have different metabolic capacities. Therefore the model of metabolic zonation proposes a functional specialization for the two zones: 1) oxidative energy metabolism with beta-oxidation, amino acid catabolism, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis for the synthesis of both glucose and glycogen, cholesterol synthesis, bile formation, and protective metabolism are predominantly located in the periportal zone; 2) glycolysis, glycogen synthesis from glucose, liponeogenesis, ketogenesis, glutamine formation, and xenobiotic metabolism are preferentially situated in the perivenous zone. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the two zones is different. During passage of blood through the liver acinus, concentration gradients of oxygen, substrates, and hormones are established; the nerve densities in the two zones seem to be different. The different expression of the genome in upstream and downstream hepatocytes can be caused among other factors by the zonal gradients in oxygen and hormone concentrations. The functional specialization of the different hepatocyte populations is especially well documented for carbohydrate, amino acid, ammonia, and xenobiotic metabolism as well as for bile formation by a number of different approaches. Zonal flux differences were calculated from enzyme and metabolite distributions measured in vivo. They were observed in periportal- and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture and in hepatocyte populations enriched in periportal and perivenous cells. They were detected also during ortho-and retrograde liver perfusion and finally by noninvasive techniques, using surface micro-light guides and miniature oxygen electrodes. The peculiar zonal hepatotoxicity of many xenobiotics can be explained at least in part by the enzymatic and fine-structural hepatocellular heterogeneity.Physiological Reviews 08/1989; 69(3):708-64. · 30.17 Impact Factor