Disinfection By-Product Formation and Mitigation Strategies in Point-of-Use Chlorination with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania

Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, and Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 07/2010; 83(1):135-43. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0431
Source: PubMed


Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6-888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines.

14 Reads
  • Source
    • "Chlorination tablets N.A. Varies N.A. 0.08e0.015/L 1e2.8 LRV of bacteria Cleaning of treatment vessel and storage container May require filtration None None (Schlosser et al., 2001; Clasen et al., 2007; Lantagne and Clasen, 2009, 2010; Jain et al., 2010 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified.
    Water Research 04/2012; 46(10):3125-51. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.030 · 5.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This biennial review covers developments in water analysis for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2011-2013. Analytical Chemistry's policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of 250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. As a result, only a small fraction of the quality research publications could be discussed. I am excited to again have Thomas Ternes join me this year to cover the section on Pharmaceuticals and Hormones. Thomas coauthored the previous 2011 Review on Water Analysis,1 and as before, this Review is so much better with his contribution. We welcome any comments you have on this Review ( Numerous abstracts were consulted before choosing the best representative ones to present here. Abstract searches were carried out using Web of Science, and in many cases, full articles were obtained. A table of acronyms is provided (Table 1) as a quick reference to the acronyms of analytical techniques and other terms discussed in this Review, and Table 2 provides some useful websites.
    Analytical Chemistry 06/2011; 83(12):4614-48. DOI:10.1021/ac200915r · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfectants effective against AIV have optimum efficacies at temperatures above 20°C. Very few studies on effective disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. Disinfectants were investigated at 4 different temperatures (25, 4, 0, and -10°C) and 2 contact times (1 and 5 min) with suspension tests. Virucidal activity of the disinfectants was evaluated by carrier tests (wood and stainless steel) at 25 and -10°C. The concentration of each disinfectant for efficient disinfection within a short time (<1 min) at 25 and -10°C was also reestablished. The results from the suspension test indicated that low temperatures inhibited the virucidal efficacy of citric acid (CA) and CA + quaternary ammonium compounds (CA+ QAC) for 1 and 5 min, whereas the remaining disinfectants were effective, regardless of the short contact times and low temperatures. The carrier test results suggested that dried virus on wood was more difficult to inactivate compared with that on stainless steel. However, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and glutaraldehyde could inactivate AIV on both wood and stainless steel at -10°C. Citric acid-based agents could not sufficiently inactivate AIV at -10°C; however, the limitation due to low temperatures was overcome by adjusting disinfectant concentration. For a successful disinfection during winter, the disinfectants that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target organism should be selected.
    Poultry Science 02/2014; 93(1):70-6. DOI:10.3382/ps.2013-03452 · 1.67 Impact Factor
Show more


14 Reads
Available from