An unintended consequence of electronic prescriptions: prevalence and impact of internal discrepancies.
ABSTRACT Many e-prescribing systems allow for both structured and free-text fields in prescriptions, making possible internal discrepancies. This study reviewed 2914 electronic prescriptions that contained free-text fields. Internal discrepancies were found in 16.1% of the prescriptions. Most (83.8%) of the discrepancies could potentially lead to adverse events and many (16.8%) to severe adverse events, involving a hospital admission or death. Discrepancies in doses, routes or complex regimens were most likely to have a potential for a severe event (p=0.0001). Discrepancies between structured and free-text fields in electronic prescriptions are common and can cause patient harm. Improvements in electronic medical record design are necessary to minimize the risk of discrepancies and resulting adverse events.
SourceAvailable from: Richard Henry Parrish[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A pediatric compounded non-sterile products repository (pCNP) to optimize the effectiveness and safety of "off-label" use of compounded pharmacotherapy through complete transmission of electronic prescriptions across the continuum of care is described. The advent of electronic prescribing has the potential to refocus and resolve long-standing issues of prescription therapy for pediatric patients related to formulation, indication, dosing, and outcomes follow-up, among others. This white paper describes the architecture and function of the pCNP repository. Further, it calls on professional societies, health information technology (HIT) and pharmaceutical industries, universities, and government to create a safer pediatric pharmacotherapy system across the continuum of care. This system would include pCNPs within the existing federal and corporate database structures for medical language, and integrates advanced system safety features as requirements for prescribing, compounding, and dispensing non-mass produced prescription therapies for children.12/2014; 2:260-269. DOI:10.3390/pharmacy2040260
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ABSTRACT: Background: Prescribers' inappropriate use of the free-text Notes field in new electronic prescriptions can create confusion and workflow disruptions at receiving pharmacies that often necessitates contact with prescribers for clarification. The inclusion of inappropriate patient direction (Sig) information in the Notes field is particularly problematic. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a targeted watermark, an embedded overlay, reminder statement in the Notes field of an EHR-based e-prescribing application on the incidence of inappropriate patient directions (Sig) in the Notes field. Methods: E-prescriptions issued by the same exact cohort of 97 prescribers were collected over three time periods: baseline, three months after implementation of the reminder, and 15 months post implementation. Three certified and experienced pharmacy technicians independently reviewed all e-prescriptions for inappropriate Sig-related information in the Notes field. A physician reviewer served as the final adjudicator for e-prescriptions where the three reviewers could not reach a consensus. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were performed on group comparisons where statistical significance was evaluated at p<0.05 Results: The incidence of inappropriate Sig-related information in the Notes field decreased from a baseline of 2.8% to 1.8% three months post-implementation and remained stable after 15 months. In addition, prescribers' use of the Notes decreased by 22% after 3 months and had stabilized at 18.7% below baseline after 15 months. Conclusion: Insertion of a targeted watermark reminder statement in the Notes field of an e-prescribing application significantly reduced the incidence of inappropriate Sig-related information in Notes and decreased prescribers' use of this field.Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2014; 5(3):699-707. DOI:10.4338/ACI-2014-03-CR-0022 · 0.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results: Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of, as directed" option to the < Frequency > dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195/month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145/month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew/Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions: Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2014; 5(3):708-20. DOI:10.4338/ACI-2014-03-RA-0023 · 0.39 Impact Factor