Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexamethasone after oral administration in apparently healthy horses.
ABSTRACT To assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of dexamethasone administered PO as a solution or powder, compared with properties of dexamethasone solution administered IV, in apparently healthy horses.
6 adult horses.
Serum cortisol concentration for each horse was determined before each treatment (baseline values). Dexamethasone (0.05 mg/kg) was administered PO (in solution or powdered form) or IV (solution) to horses from which feed had or had not been withheld (unfed and fed horses, respectively). Each horse received all 6 treatments in random order at 2-week intervals; PO and IV administrations of dexamethasone were accompanied by IV or PO sham treatments, respectively. Plasma dexamethasone and serum cortisol concentrations were assessed at predetermined intervals.
Maximum plasma dexamethasone concentration after PO administration of powdered dexamethasone in unfed horses was significantly higher than the maximum plasma concentration after PO administration of dexamethasone solution in unfed or fed horses. Mean bioavailability of dexamethasone ranged from 28% to 66% but was not significantly different among horses receiving either formulation PO in the unfed or fed state. After dexamethasone treatment PO or IV, serum cortisol concentrations were significantly less than baseline at 1 to 72 hours in unfed horses and at 2 to 48 hours in fed horses.
PO or IV administration of dexamethasone resulted in suppression of cortisol secretion in unfed and fed adult horses; the magnitude of suppression did not differ among treatment groups, and serum cortisol concentrations returned to baseline after 48 to 72 hours.
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are generally considered less responsive to glucocorticoids compared to other inflammatory cells. The reported increase in human neutrophil survival mediated by these drugs partly supports this assertion. However, it was recently shown that dexamethasone exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in equine peripheral blood neutrophils. Few comparative studies of glucocorticoid effects in neutrophils and other leukocytes have been reported and a relative insensitivity of neutrophils to these drugs could not be ruled out. We assessed glucocorticoid-responsiveness in equine and human peripheral blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes were isolated from 6 healthy horses and 4 human healthy subjects. Cells were incubated for 5 h with or without LPS (100 ng/mL) alone or combined with hydrocortisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone (10(-8) M and 10(-6) M). IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, glutamine synthetase and GR-α mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Equine neutrophils were also incubated for 20 h with or without the three glucocorticoids and cell survival was assessed by flow cytometry and light microscopy on cytospin preparations. We found that glucocorticoids down-regulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in both cell populations and species. These drugs also significantly increased glutamine synthetase gene expression in both equine cell populations. The magnitude of glucocorticoid response between cell populations was generally similar in both species. We also showed that dexamethasone had a comparable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression in both human and equine neutrophils. As reported in other species, glucocorticoids significantly increase the survival in equine neutrophils. Glucocorticoids exert genomic effects of similar magnitude on neutrophils and on other blood leukocytes. We speculate that the poor response to glucocorticoids observed in some chronic neutrophilic diseases such as severe asthma or COPD is not explained by a relative lack of inhibition of these drugs on pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in neutrophils.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44606. · 3.73 Impact Factor