Associations of horse age, joint type, and osteochondral injury with serum and synovial fluid concentrations of type II collagen biomarkers in Thoroughbreds.
ABSTRACT To determine the effects of horse age, osteochondral injury, and joint type on a synthesis biomarker and 3 degradative biomarkers of type II collagen in Thoroughbreds.
Healthy rested adult (3- to 12-year-old) Thoroughbreds (n = 19), yearling (1- to 2-year-old) Thoroughbreds (40), and Thoroughbred racehorses (2 to 7 years old) undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments that resulted from training or racing (41).
Samples of blood and metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, or carpal joint synovial fluid (SF) were collected from all horses. Commercially available assays were used to analyze SF and serum concentrations of type II collagen biomarkers of synthesis (carboxy propeptide of type II collagen [CPII]) and degradation (cross-linked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [CTX II], neoepitope generated by collagenase cleavage of type I and II collagen [C1,2C], and neoepitope generated by collagenase cleavage of type II collagen [C2C]).
Osteochondral injury affected concentrations of CPII, CTX II, C1,2C, and C2C in SF, serum, or both, compared with concentrations in healthy adult horses. Compared with adult horses, yearling horses had increased SF or serum concentrations of degradative biomarkers (CTX II, C1,2C, and C2C). Concentrations were higher in carpal than metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints for all biomarkers in osteochondral-injured horses. Variable differences in SF concentrations between joint types were detected in healthy adult and yearling horses.
Horse age, osteochondral injury, and joint type all significantly affected type II collagen biomarker concentrations in SF and serum of Thoroughbreds.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of an intra-articular (IA) lidocaine or bupivacaine injection on synovial fluid (SF) biomarkers of cartilage metabolism. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. ANIMALS: Horses (n = 6). METHODS: The study had 2 components, each with an identical design: the first arm assessed the effects of bupivacaine (0.5%) IA in the intercarpal joints and, after a 2-week washout period, the second was conducted to evaluate the effects of IA lidocaine (2%) in the tarsocrural joints. The mares were randomly assigned to receive the test local anesthetic in the target joint or the placebo (0.9% NaCl) in the contralateral joint. After a 2-week washout period, treatments were reversed, yielding 6 joints for each treatment. SF samples were collected for measurement of biomarkers of cartilage metabolism. RESULTS: IA bupivacaine or lidocaine induced a significant increase in both markers of cartilage matrix synthesis (CS846-aggrecan and CPII-type II collagen) suggesting an anabolic effect. Bupivacaine also resulted in an unanticipated decrease in both collagen degradation markers (C2C and C1,2C). CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal an anabolic effect of single IA injections of local anesthetics on cartilage metabolism. Although collagen degradation biomarker results were not increased, it is possible that the anabolic response is because of an undetected cartilage insult, and requires further investigation.Veterinary Surgery 09/2012; 41(8). DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01039.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To use microarray analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. Animals-24 horses. Procedures-During arthroscopic surgery, a fragment was created in the distal aspect of the radiocarpal bone in 1 forelimb of each horse to induce osteoarthritis. At day 14 after osteoarthritis induction, horses began exercise on a treadmill. Blood and synovial fluid samples were collected before and after surgery. At day 70, horses were euthanized and tissues were harvested for RNA analysis. An equine-specific microarray was used to measure RNA expression in peripheral WBCs. These data were compared with mRNA expression (determined via PCR assay) in WBCs, cartilage, and synovium as well as 2 protein biomarkers of cartilage matrix turnover in serum and synovial fluid. Results-A metalloproteinase domain-like protein decysin-1 (ADAMDEC1), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 94, hematopoietic cell signal transducer (HCST), Unc-93 homolog A (hUNC-93A), and ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide (RRM2) were significantly differentially regulated in WBCs of horses with osteoarthritis, compared with values prior to induction of osteoarthritis. There was correlation between the gene expression profile in WBCs, cartilage, and synovium and the cartilage turnover proteins. Gene expression of ADAMDEC1, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 in WBCs were correlated when measured via microarray analysis and PCR assay. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Expression of ADAMDEC1, GRP94, HCST, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 was differentially regulated in peripheral WBCs obtained from horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. Gene expression of ADAMDEC1, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 in peripheral WBCs has the potential for use as a diagnostic aid for osteoarthritis in horses.American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2013; 74(1):115-21. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.74.1.115 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. PTOA may be initiated by early expression of proteolytic enzymes capable of causing degradation of the articular cartilage at time of injury. This study investigated the production of three of these key proteases in multiple joint tissues after ACL injury and subsequent markers of cartilage turnover. ACL transection was performed in adolescent minipigs. Collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-13) and aggrecanase (ADAMTS-4) gene expression changes were quantified in the articular cartilage, synovium, injured ligament, and the provisional scaffold at days 1, 5, 9, and 14 post-injury. Markers of collagen degradation (C2C), synthesis (CPII) and aggrecan synthesis (CS846) were quantified in the serum and synovial fluid. Histologic assessment of the cartilage integrity (OARSI scoring) was also performed. MMP-1 gene expression was upregulated in the articular cartilage, synovium and ligament after ACL injury. MMP-13 expression was suppressed in the articular cartilage, but upregulated 100-fold in the synovium and ligament. ADAMTS-4 was upregulated in the synovium and ligament but not in the articular cartilage. The concentration of collagen degradation fragments (C2C) in the synovial joint fluid nearly doubled in the first five days after injury. We conclude that upregulation of genes coding for proteins capable of degrading cartilage ECM is seen within the first few days after ACL injury, and this response is seen not only in chondrocytes, but also in cells in the synovium, ligament and provisional scaffold.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor