Article

Quality assessment for therapeutic drug monitoring in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG 5146): a multicenter clinical trial.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (Impact Factor: 1.93). 08/2010; 32(4):458-66. DOI: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181e4427a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a randomized trial, AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 5146 (A5146) investigated the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to adjust doses of HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) in patients with prior virologic failure on PI-based therapy who were starting a new PI-based regimen. The overall percentage of "PI trough repeats" such as rescheduled visits or redrawn PI trough specimens increased from 2% to 5% to 10% as the process progressed from the clinical sites, the pharmacology specialty laboratory, and the study team, respectively. Cumulatively, this represents a 17% rate of failure to obtain adequate PI trough sample. While targeting a turnaround of 7 days or less from sample receipt to a drug concentration report, 12% of the received specimens required a longer period to report concentrations. The implementation of dosing changes in the TDM arm were achieved within 7 days or less for 56% of the dose change events and within 14 days or less for 77% of dose change events. This quality assurance analysis provides a valuable summary of the specific points in the TDM process that could be improved during a multicenter clinical trial including: 1) shortening the timeline of sample shipment from clinical site to the laboratory; 2) performing the collection of PI trough specimen within the targeted sampling window by careful monitoring of the last dose times and collection times by the clinicians; 3) increasing patient adherence counseling to reduce the number of samples that are redrawn due to suspecting inconsistent adherence; and 4) decreasing the time to successful TDM-based dose adjustment. The application of some of these findings may also be relevant to single-center studies or clinical TDM programs within a hospital.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Carrie Dykes, Jun 21, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
121 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sensor capable of continuously measuring specific molecules in the bloodstream in vivo would give clinicians a valuable window into patients' health and their response to therapeutics. Such technology would enable truly personalized medicine, wherein therapeutic agents could be tailored with optimal doses for each patient to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. Unfortunately, continuous, real-time measurement is currently only possible for a handful of targets, such as glucose, lactose, and oxygen, and the few existing platforms for continuous measurement are not generalizable for the monitoring of other analytes, such as small-molecule therapeutics. In response, we have developed a real-time biosensor capable of continuously tracking a wide range of circulating drugs in living subjects. Our microfluidic electrochemical detector for in vivo continuous monitoring (MEDIC) requires no exogenous reagents, operates at room temperature, and can be reconfigured to measure different target molecules by exchanging probes in a modular manner. To demonstrate the system's versatility, we measured therapeutic in vivo concentrations of doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic) and kanamycin (an antibiotic) in live rats and in human whole blood for several hours with high sensitivity and specificity at subminute temporal resolution. We show that MEDIC can also obtain pharmacokinetic parameters for individual animals in real time. Accordingly, just as continuous glucose monitoring technology is currently revolutionizing diabetes care, we believe that MEDIC could be a powerful enabler for personalized medicine by ensuring delivery of optimal drug doses for individual patients based on direct detection of physiological parameters.
    Science translational medicine 11/2013; 5(213):213ra165. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3007095 · 14.41 Impact Factor