Private-Party Gun Sales, Regulation, and Public Safety

Violence Prevention Research Program and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 08/2010; 363(6):508-11. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1006326
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: It was not so long ago that scholarly writings pointed to the vast chasm that existed between criminal justice and public health approaches to understanding and controlling interpersonal violence. Other scholarship of the day examined how criminal justice and criminology could benefit from adopting elements of the public health approach. For sure, there still exist many differences in how the two disciplines approach the violence problem, but over the years there have been some promising developments at the intersection of public health and criminology. This paper surveys the evolving link between public health and criminology, with a special focus on serious youth violence. It is concerned with both research and practice and how these efforts—across primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies—are contributing to improved public health-criminology collaborations or public health-influenced programs that have a discernable impact on youth violence.
    Justice Quarterly 11/2012; 31(3):1-24. DOI:10.1080/07418825.2012.690441 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Over 30 000 people die annually in the United States from injuries caused by firearms. Although most firearm laws are enacted by states, whether the laws are associated with rates of firearm deaths is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether more firearm laws in a state are associated with fewer firearm fatalities. DESIGN Using an ecological and cross-sectional method, we retrospectively analyzed all firearm-related deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System from 2007 through 2010. We used state-level firearm legislation across 5 categories of laws to create a "legislative strength score," and measured the association of the score with state mortality rates using a clustered Poisson regression. States were divided into quartiles based on their score. SETTING Fifty US states. PARTICIPANTS Populations of all US states. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The outcome measures were state-level firearm-related fatalities per 100 000 individuals per year overall, for suicide, and for homicide. In various models, we controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty, unemployment, college education, population density, nonfirearm violence-related deaths, and household firearm ownership. RESULTS Over the 4-year study period, there were 121 084 firearm fatalities. The average state-based firearm fatality rates varied from a high of 17.9 (Louisiana) to a low of 2.9 (Hawaii) per 100 000 individuals per year. Annual firearm legislative strength scores ranged from 0 (Utah) to 24 (Massachusetts) of 28 possible points. States in the highest quartile of legislative strength (scores of ≥9) had a lower overall firearm fatality rate than those in the lowest quartile (scores of ≤2) (absolute rate difference, 6.64 deaths/100 000/y; age-adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92). Compared with the quartile of states with the fewest laws, the quartile with the most laws had a lower firearm suicide rate (absolute rate difference, 6.25 deaths/100 000/y; IRR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.83) and a lower firearm homicide rate (absolute rate difference, 0.40 deaths/100 000/y; IRR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A higher number of firearm laws in a state are associated with a lower rate of firearm fatalities in the state, overall and for suicides and homicides individually. As our study could not determine cause-and-effect relationships, further studies are necessary to define the nature of this association.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 03/2013; 173(9):1-9. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1286 · 13.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: —Background: Several professional medical societies advocate for firearm safety counseling with pa-tients. Little is known about Emergency Physicians' prac-tices and perceptions of firearm safety counseling. Objective: To assess Emergency Physicians' beliefs regard-ing firearm control and their confidence in counseling pa-tients on firearm safety. Methods: A national random sample (n = 500) of the members of the American College of Emergency Physicians was sent a valid and reliable ques-tionnaire on firearm safety counseling. Results: Of the 278 (56.8%) responding physicians, those who were non-white and those who were not members of the National Rifle Asso-ciation (NRA) perceived firearm violence to be more of a problem than white physicians and those who were mem-bers of the NRA. The majority did not believe that patients would view them as a good source of information on firearm safety (63.3%) or that patients would accept them providing anticipatory firearm safety guidance (56.5%). The majority of the Emergency Department physicians did not believe firearm safety counseling would impact firearm-related ho-micides (75.2%) or suicides (70%). Conclusions: The vast majority of Emergency Physicians had never been formally trained regarding firearm safety counseling, did not believe patients would see them as credible sources, and did not be-lieve that anticipatory guidance on firearm safety would have any impact. These data may help inform Emergency Medicine residency programs on the training needs of residents regarding anticipatory guidance on firearm safety. Ó 2013 Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2013; 27(1):1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.010 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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