Acute kidney injury in non-critically ill children treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics in a tertiary healthcare centre: a retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT Aminoglycosides (AG) cause acute kidney injury (AKI), but the incidence and severity distribution are unclear, particularly in non-critically ill children. We determined the incidence, severity and risk factors of AG-associated AKI and assessed for associations with longer hospitalization and higher costs.
At Texas Children's Hospital, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of children treated with AG for ≥ 5 days in 2005, excluding children with admission primary renal diagnoses. AKI was defined by the paediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) definitions. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess independence of associations with outcomes.
Five hundred and fifty-seven children [mean ± SD age = 8.0 ± 5.9 years, 286 (51%) male, 489 (88%) gentamicin] were studied. The AKI rate was 33% and 20% by pRIFLE and AKIN definitions, respectively. Longer treatment, higher baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, being on a medicine (versus surgical) treatment service and prior AG treatment were independent risk factors for AKI development. AKI by pRIFLE or AKIN was independently associated with longer hospital stay and higher total hospital costs. The pRIFLE definition was more sensitive for AKI detection, but the AKIN definition was more strongly related to outcomes.
AKI is common and associated with poorer outcomes in non-critically ill children treated with AG. Future research should attempt to understand how to best define AKI in the non-critical illness paediatric setting.
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- "27. Li S, Krawczeski CD, Zappitelli M et al (2011) Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med 39:1493–1499. "
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-related inflammatory response might be one mechanism by which cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs. Interventions that may attenuate inflammation, including glucocorticoids or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, could therefore have a role in its prevention. We aimed to determine the role of inflammatory mediators in CS-AKI in children and the efficacy of commonly used peri-operative interventions to reduce CS-AKI risk. METHODS: We prospectively studied 109 children undergoing heart surgery. Using regression modeling (adjusting for covariates), we (1) evaluated the association between inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels] and CS-AKI, and (2) evaluated risk/prevention factors for CS-AKI including glucocorticoid and milrinone administration. CS-AKI was defined based on pRIFLE methods. RESULTS: CS-AKI occurred in 68 % of children. No inflammatory mediator measured had an independent association with CS-AKI. Higher pre-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sustained decrease in mean arterial pressure during CPB, post-operative single ventricle physiology, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and milrinone use at 24 h post-operatively were significant independent predictors of CS-AKI. Intra-operative steroid administration had no effect on the rate of CS-AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Although inflammatory mediators are up-regulated following CPB, we found no association between levels of inflammatory cytokines and CS-AKI. CS-AKI has complex pathophysiology and the observation that milrinone was associated with increased AKI risk (and that higher GFR predicts more injury) suggests that mechanisms beyond inflammation play a significant role. Intra-operative administration of glucocorticoid does not appear to be an effective intervention for reducing the risk of CS-AKI.Intensive Care Medicine 02/2013; 39(5). DOI:10.1007/s00134-013-2849-4 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review will highlight recent studies on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), review the differential diagnosis, highlight the importance of cumulative fluid overload and provide key management strategies for the pediatric patient with AKI. Over the last decade, serum creatinine-based categorical definitions of AKI have been accepted, which allow detection earlier in the disease process. Evidence-based modifications of these definitions have occurred. Fluid overload portends poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Significant improvements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of glomerular/vascular causes of AKI have occurred. Categorical definitions of AKI have shown that higher AKI portends poor outcomes even with adjustment for severity of illness and other confounders. Cumulative fluid overload independently predicts poor outcomes. Strategies to prevent and/or treat fluid overload are likely to improve outcomes.Current opinion in pediatrics 12/2010; 23(2):201-7. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328342ff37 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are few studies regarding the clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, major complications and causes of death in children with VL. A retrospective study was performed with pediatric patients (< or = 14 years old) with a diagnosis of VL in Fortaleza, state of Ceara, in Northeast Brazil. A total of 120 patients were included. The mean age was 5 +/- 3.9 years, and 53.4% were male. The main clinical manifestations at admission were: fever (94.2%), splenomegaly (94.2%), hepatomegaly (82.5%), anorexia (55%), malaise (47.5%), cough (41.6%), abdominal pain (27.5%), vomiting (25.5%), and diarrhea (16.6%). Acute kidney injury was found in 25% of the patients. The main complication during hospital stay was pulmonary infection, found in 27.5% (n = 33), leading to sepsis in 3 cases. Glucantime was the drug of choice in 90% (n = 108) of the cases, amphotericin B in 7.5% (n = 9) and AmBisome in 2.5% (n = 3). Death occurred in 4 cases (3.3%) due to sepsis (3 cases) and hemorrhagic complications (1 case). Visceral leishmaniasis is a frequent infection among children in our region. The main complications were pulmonary infection and acute kidney injury related to antiparasitic therapy, along with sepsis and hemorrhage.The Turkish journal of pediatrics 01/2011; 53(2):154-60. · 0.56 Impact Factor