Acute kidney injury in non-critically ill children treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics in a tertiary healthcare centre: a retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT Aminoglycosides (AG) cause acute kidney injury (AKI), but the incidence and severity distribution are unclear, particularly in non-critically ill children. We determined the incidence, severity and risk factors of AG-associated AKI and assessed for associations with longer hospitalization and higher costs.
At Texas Children's Hospital, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of children treated with AG for ≥ 5 days in 2005, excluding children with admission primary renal diagnoses. AKI was defined by the paediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) definitions. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess independence of associations with outcomes.
Five hundred and fifty-seven children [mean ± SD age = 8.0 ± 5.9 years, 286 (51%) male, 489 (88%) gentamicin] were studied. The AKI rate was 33% and 20% by pRIFLE and AKIN definitions, respectively. Longer treatment, higher baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, being on a medicine (versus surgical) treatment service and prior AG treatment were independent risk factors for AKI development. AKI by pRIFLE or AKIN was independently associated with longer hospital stay and higher total hospital costs. The pRIFLE definition was more sensitive for AKI detection, but the AKIN definition was more strongly related to outcomes.
AKI is common and associated with poorer outcomes in non-critically ill children treated with AG. Future research should attempt to understand how to best define AKI in the non-critical illness paediatric setting.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-related inflammatory response might be one mechanism by which cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs. Interventions that may attenuate inflammation, including glucocorticoids or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, could therefore have a role in its prevention. We aimed to determine the role of inflammatory mediators in CS-AKI in children and the efficacy of commonly used peri-operative interventions to reduce CS-AKI risk. METHODS: We prospectively studied 109 children undergoing heart surgery. Using regression modeling (adjusting for covariates), we (1) evaluated the association between inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels] and CS-AKI, and (2) evaluated risk/prevention factors for CS-AKI including glucocorticoid and milrinone administration. CS-AKI was defined based on pRIFLE methods. RESULTS: CS-AKI occurred in 68 % of children. No inflammatory mediator measured had an independent association with CS-AKI. Higher pre-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sustained decrease in mean arterial pressure during CPB, post-operative single ventricle physiology, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and milrinone use at 24 h post-operatively were significant independent predictors of CS-AKI. Intra-operative steroid administration had no effect on the rate of CS-AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Although inflammatory mediators are up-regulated following CPB, we found no association between levels of inflammatory cytokines and CS-AKI. CS-AKI has complex pathophysiology and the observation that milrinone was associated with increased AKI risk (and that higher GFR predicts more injury) suggests that mechanisms beyond inflammation play a significant role. Intra-operative administration of glucocorticoid does not appear to be an effective intervention for reducing the risk of CS-AKI.European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 02/2013; 39(5). DOI:10.1007/s00134-013-2849-4 · 5.54 Impact Factor
- 01/2015; 4(1):1-3. DOI:10.12861/jrip.2015.01
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ABSTRACT: Although several standardized definitions for AKI have been developed, no consensus exists regarding which to use in children. This study applied the Pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE), AKI Network (AKIN), and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria to an anonymized cohort of hospitalizations extracted from the electronic medical record to compare AKI incidence and outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU pediatric populations. Observational, electronic medical record-enabled study of 14,795 hospitalizations at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2010. AKI and AKI severity stage were defined by the pRIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO definitions according to creatinine change criteria; urine output criteria were not used. The incidences of AKI and each AKI stage were calculated for each classification system. All-cause, in-hospital mortality and total hospital length of stay (LOS) were compared at each subsequent AKI stage by Fisher exact and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, respectively. AKI incidences across the cohort according to pRIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO were 51.1%, 37.3%, and 40.3%. Mortality was higher among patients with AKI across all definitions (pRIFLE, 2.3%; AKIN, 2.7%; KDIGO, 2.5%; P<0.001 versus no AKI [0.8%-1.0%]). Within the ICU, pRIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO demonstrated progressively higher mortality at each AKI severity stage; AKI was not associated with mortality outside the ICU by any definition. Both in and outside the ICU, AKI was associated with significantly higher LOS at each AKI severity stage across all three definitions (P<0.001). Definitions resulted in differences in diagnosis and staging of AKI; staging agreement ranged from 76.7% to 92.5%. Application of the three definitions led to differences in AKI incidence and staging. AKI was associated with greater mortality and LOS in the ICU and greater LOS outside the ICU. All three definitions demonstrated excellent interstage discrimination. While each definition offers advantages, these results underscore the need to adopt a single, universal AKI definition. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.2215/CJN.01900214 · 5.25 Impact Factor