Validation of the cat as a model for the human lumbar spine during simulated high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation
ABSTRACT High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is an efficacious treatment for low back pain, although the physiological mechanisms underlying its effects remain elusive. The lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC) is innervated with mechanically sensitive neurons and it has been theorized that the neurophysiological benefits of HVLA-SM are partially induced by stimulation of FJC neurons. Biomechanical aspects of this theory have been investigated in humans while neurophysiological aspects have been investigated using cat models. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between human and cat lumbar spines during HVLA-SM. Cat lumbar spine specimens were mechanically tested, using a displacement-controlled apparatus, during simulated HVLA-SM applied at L5, L6, and L7 that produced preload forces of approximately 25% bodyweight for 0.5 s and peak forces that rose to 50-100% bodyweight within approximately 125 ms, similar to that delivered clinically. Joint kinematics and FJC strain were measured optically. Human FJC strain and kinematics data were taken from a prior study. Regression models were established for FJC strain magnitudes as functions of factors species, manipulation site, and interactions thereof. During simulated HVLA-SM, joint kinematics in cat spines were greater in magnitude compared with humans. Similar to human spines, site-specific HVLA-SM produced regional cat FJC strains at distant motion segments. Joint motions and FJC strain magnitudes for cat spines were larger than those for human spine specimens. Regression relationships demonstrated that species, HVLA-SM site, and interactions thereof were significantly and moderately well correlated for HVLA-SM that generated tensile strain in the FJC. The relationships established in the current study can be used in future neurophysiological studies conducted in cats to extrapolate how human FJC afferents might respond to HVLA-SM. The data from the current study warrant further investigation into the clinical relevance of site targeted HVLA-SM.
Conference Paper: Document categorisation by genetic algorithms[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Today, it is easy to provide information to and retrieve information from the Internet. However, the problem of information overload has to be overcome. One of the main issues to be addressed for the information overload problem is document classification. We present an evolutionary approach to automatically categorize documents into appropriate categories. Our approach deals with different categories of documents separately: it evolves a numerical list that consists of the corresponding weights of the feature words for each class of documents. Experimental results show that our approach can easily evolve the classifiers of numerical lists, and that the evolved classifiers perform better than those constructed by the traditional k-nearest neighbors approachSystems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2000 IEEE International Conference on; 02/2000
- Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2010; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.10.515 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC) is innervated with mechanically sensitive neurons and is thought to contribute to proprioception and pain. Biomechanical investigations of the FJC have commonly used human cadaveric spines, whereas combined biomechanical and neurophysiological studies have typically used nonhuman animal models. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical relationships describing vertebral kinematics and FJC strain in cat and human lumbar spine specimens during physiological spinal motions to facilitate future efforts at understanding the mechanosensory role of the FJC. Cat lumbar spine specimens were tested during extension, flexion, and lateral bending. Joint kinematics and FJC principal strain were measured optically. Facet joint capsule strain-intervertebral angle (IVA) regression relationships were established for the 3 most caudal lumbar joints using cat (current study) and human (prior study) data. The FJC strain-IVA relationships were used to estimate cat and human spine kinematics that corresponded to published sensory neuron response thresholds (5% and 10% strain) for low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Significant linear relationships between IVA and strain were observed for both human and cat during motions that produced tension in the FJCs (P < .01). During motions that produced tension in the FJCs, the models predicted that FJC strain magnitudes corresponding to published sensory neuron response thresholds would be produced by IVA magnitudes within the physiological range of lumbar motion. Data from the current study support the proprioceptive role of lumbar spine FJC and low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents and can be used in interpreting combined neurophysiological and biomechanical studies of cat lumbar spines.Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 09/2011; 34(7):420-31. DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2011.05.005 · 1.25 Impact Factor