The transesterification reaction of canola oil was studied on titania-supported catalysts with varying loadings of potassium. It was found that the most active catalysts fall in the range where the adsorption/ desorption of CO2 was the highest. Total conversion to methyl esters was achieved on a catalyst with 20% K-loading under air conditions and with no in situ pre-treatment before reaction. The funding from the CIMAT project No. 11980002 is gratefully acknowledged for funding this work.
"c o m / l o c a t e / a p e n e r g y from fatty acid sources, such as vegetable oils, waste oil or animal fats. In view of vegetable oils are expensive, some cheap feed stocks including non-edible and waste cooking oils are more used in transesterification to reduce the production costs of biodiesel   . However, the transesterification of waste oils is often accompanied by saponification reaction due to the fact that these waste oils generally have high levels of FFAs, which will increase the consumption of alkaline catalysts and lower the yield of esters, and the separation of esters also turn difficult due to the formation of soap. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esterification of free fatty acids with alcohols catalytic by acid catalysts can synthesize sustainable production of biofuel. In this work, 12-tungstophosphoric acid was modified by picolinic acid to prepare solid acid catalyst (PA-HPW) and applied to the esterification, which was proved to be an efficient catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and alcohols. For characterization of the catalysts, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and potentiometric titration method were employed. These analyses showed that there was no decomposition of the Keggin structure of 12-tungstophosphoric acid during preparation and esterification. The PA-HPW catalyst presented high acidity and good stability in esterification mixtures. Various reaction parameters, such as methanol/oleic acid molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and time were systematically examined. A quantitative conversion (100%) of oleic acid was achieved, using the most active modified catalyst at 80 degrees C with a 7 wt % catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 5 h, at a 10:1 of alcohol/acid mole ratio. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused, which indicated that the PA-HPW catalyst is a promising new type of heterogeneous acid catalyst for conversion of free fatty acid feeds to biodiesel.
Applied Energy 12/2014; 134:283–289. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.07.099 · 5.61 Impact Factor
"The search of alternative catalysts as substitutes for homogenous catalysts has been conducted for some years, and scientists found that heterogeneous catalysts offer several advantages than the homogeneous ones such as reusable, easy to separate, low sensitivity towards FFA and moisture content, more environmentally friendly, etc. Basically, the heterogeneous catalysts can be grouped into several types: alkali catalysts, acid catalyst, and enzymatic catalysts . The heterogeneous alkali catalysts include calcium oxide [4e7], KOH/bentonite catalyst , K-TiO 2 , etc. For solid acid catalysts include sulphonic acid resin , acid modified organo-clay , H 3 PW 12 O 40 /Ta 2 O 5 , zirconium sulfate supported on HMS-5 , aluminum hydrogen sulfate . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The waste Capiz shell was utilized as raw material for catalyst production for biodiesel preparation. During calcination process, the calcium carbonate content in the waste capiz shell was converted to CaO. This calcium oxide was used as catalyst for transesterification reaction between palm oil and methanol to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel preparation was conducted under the following conditions: the mole ration between methanol and palm oil was 8:1, stirring speed was 700 rpm, and reaction temperature was 60 °C for 4, 5, and 6 h reaction time. The amount of catalyst was varied at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt %. The maximum yield of biodiesel was 93 ± 2.2%, obtained at 6 h of reaction time and 3 wt % of amount of catalyst. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from waste of capiz (Amusium cristatum) shell, three transesterification reaction cycles were also performed.
Renewable Energy 02/2013; 50:795–799. DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2012.08.060 · 3.48 Impact Factor
"In this work, we reported microwave-assisted dehydration of glucose to HMF catalyzed by hydroxyapatite supported chromium chloride as a heterogeneous catalyst. This process would be preferable in order to realize green and sustainable chemistry (Wu et al., 2010; Salinas et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from glucose was studied in ionic liquids in the presence of hydroxyapatite supported chromium chloride (Cr-HAP) using oil-bath heating and microwave irradiation (MI). Compared with oil-bath heating, the MI way obviously increased HMF yield and reduced the reaction time from days to several minutes. A maximum HMF yield of 40% was obtained from the dehydration of glucose under MI in 2.5 min. This method is potential as an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for the conversion of biomass into platform chemicals.
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