Regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and endotoxemia by beta-arrestins.
ABSTRACT Beta-arrestins are scaffolding proteins implicated as negative regulators of TLR4 signaling in macrophages and fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we found that beta-arrestin-1 (beta-arr-1) and -2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from TLR4-mediated endotoxic shock and lethality. To identify the potential mechanisms involved, we examined the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the wild-type (WT) and beta-arr-1 and -2 KO mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 ligand) injection. Consistent with lethality, LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine levels in the plasma were markedly decreased in both beta-arr-1 and -2 KO, compared to WT mice. To further explore the cellular mechanisms, we obtained splenocytes (separated into CD11(b+) and CD11(b-) populations) from WT, beta-arr-1, and -2 KO mice and examined the effect of LPS on cytokine production. Similar to the in vivo observations, LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines were significantly blocked in both splenocyte populations from the beta-arr-2 KO compared to the WT mice. This effect in the beta-arr-1 KO mice, however, was restricted to the CD11(b-) splenocytes. Our studies further indicate that regulation of cytokine production by beta-arrestins is likely independent of MAPK and IkappaBalpha-NFkappaB pathways. Our results, however, suggest that LPS-induced chromatin modification is dependent on beta-arrestin levels and may be the underlying mechanistic basis for regulation of cytokine levels by beta-arrestins in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that beta-arr-1 and -2 mediate LPS-induced cytokine secretion in a cell-type specific manner and that both beta-arrestins have overlapping but non-redundant roles in regulating inflammatory cytokine production and endotoxic shock in mice.
Article: Flavocoxid, a dual inhibitor of COX-2 and 5-LOX of natural origin, attenuates the inflammatory response and protects mice from sepsis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is an inflammatory condition that leads to multisystemic organ failure. Flavocoxid, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), has been shown in vitro to possess antiinflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat macrophages by reducing nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and COX-2, 5-LOX and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of flavocoxid in a murine model of CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to CLP or sham operation. In a first set of experiments, an intraperitoneal injection of flavocoxid (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered 1 hour after surgery and repeated every 12 hours. Survival rate was monitored every 24 hours throughout 120 hours. Furthermore, additional groups of sham and CLP mice were killed 18 hours after surgical procedures for blood-sample collection and the lung and liver were collected for biomolecular, biochemical and histopathologic studies. RESULTS: COX-2, 5-LOX, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, extracellular-regulated-kinase 1/2 (ERK), JunN-terminal kinase (JNK), NF-κB, and β-arrestin 2 protein expression were evaluated in lung and liver with Western blot analysis. In addition, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, and lipoxin A4 serum content were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flavocoxid administration improved survival, reduced the expression of NF-κB, COX-2, 5-LOX, TNF-α and IL-6 and increased IL-10 production. Moreover, flavocoxid inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway, preserved β-arrestin 2 expression, reduced blood LTB4, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6, and increased IL-10 and lipoxin A4 serum levels. The treatment with flavocoxid also protected against the histologic damage induced by CLP and reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung and liver. CONCLUSIONS: Flavocoxid protects mice from sepsis, suggesting that this dual inhibitor may represent a promising approach in such a life-threatening condition.Critical care (London, England) 02/2012; 16(1):R32. · 4.61 Impact Factor