Caudal analgesia reduces the sevoflurane requirement for LMA removal in anesthetized children

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, and Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 06/2010; 58(6):527-31. DOI: 10.4097/kjae.2010.58.6.527
Source: PubMed


An anesthetic state can reduce adverse airway reaction during laryngeal mask airway (LMA) removal in children. However, the anesthetic state has risks of upper airway obstruction or delayed emergence; so possibly less anesthetic depth is advisable. Caudal analgesia reduces the requirement of anesthetic agents for sedation or anesthesia; it is expected to reduce the sevoflurane requirement for LMA removal. Therefore, we determined the EC(50) of sevoflurane for LMA removal with caudal analgesia and compared that to the EC(50) without caudal analgesia.
Forty-three unpremedicated children aged 1 to 6 yr were enrolled. They were allocated to receive or not to receive caudal block according to their parents' consent. General anesthesia were induced and maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in air. EC(50) of sevoflurane for a smooth LMA removal with and without caudal analgesia were estimated by the Dixon up-and-down method. The LMA was removed when predetermined end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was achieved, and the sevoflurane concentration of a subsequent patient was determined by the success or failure of the previous patient with 0.2% as the step size; success was defined by the absence of an adverse airway reaction during and after LMA removal. EC(50) of sevoflurane with caudal block, and that without caudal block, were compared by a rank-sum test.
The EC(50) of sevoflurane to achieve successful LMA removal in children with caudal block was 1.47%; 1.81% without caudal block. The EC(50) were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001).
Caudal analgesia significantly reduced the sevoflurane concentration for a smooth LMA removal in anesthetized children.

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    Korean journal of anesthesiology 06/2010; 58(6):507. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2010.58.6.507
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    ABSTRACT: Caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly performed neuraxial block techniques with reliable peri-operative and post-operative analgesia in pediatric patients. In our randomized, prospective, double-blinded, open level, parallel group study, we have established the effect of caudal epidural block on maintenance requirement of intravenous (IV) propofol in targeted bispectral (BIS) monitored patients. Neuraxial anesthesia exhibits sedative properties that may reduce the requirement for general anesthesia. TIVA with propofol has been administered as an established method of maintaining general anesthesia in children. Caudal analgesia being a type of neuraxial block, also seems to reduce the requirement of sedative hypnotics in pediatric patients. Numerous studies show that for patients, administered with caudal epidural block, they require reduced intra-operative volatile inhalation anesthetics. In the present study, we have established the anesthetic sparing effect of Caudal Epidural Analgesia in children undergoing infra-umbilical surgical procedure and calculated the efficacy of propofol-infusion in maintaining adequate depth of anesthesia. (1) To study and compare the dose requirements of propofol using caudal epidural analgesia. (2) To calculate the efficacy of propofol as maintenance anesthetic agent in both groups and to compare hemodynamic stability of patients in both the techniques. In our study, after administering general anesthesia to pediatric patients, we have administered caudal analgesia and IV analgesia to monitor the requirement of intra-operative propofol infusion using BIS monitor with a target value of 40-60 in both groups. 82 patients (aged between 3 and 6 years) have been selected undergoing infra-umbilical surgery and randomly allocated into two groups containing 41 patients in each group. Both the groups group B and group A then intubated with glycopyrrolate, 2 mg/kg injection fentanyl, propofol till loss of verbal contact and atracurium at the rate of 0.5 mg/kg and group B has been administered caudal epidural blockade with 1 ml/kg 0.2% ropivacaine. Propofol infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h is given as maintenance. BIS value has been recorded throughout and propofol requirement at the end of surgery has been calculated. Numerical variables between groups have been analyzed using the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test as applicable. Categorical variables have been analyzed using the Pearson's Chi-square test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Consumption of propofol at the start of operation in the group A is 2.9 ± 0.17 and group B is 2.91 ± 0.17, which is not statistically significant (P > 0.05), whereas at the end of the operation in the group A is 11.33 ± 0.17 and group B is 7.83 ± 0.63, which is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Incidence of adverse effects is statistically insignificant between the two groups. The time for administration of rescue analgesic is 2.1 ± 0.88 in group A and 6.5 ± 0.17 in group B, which is statistically significant due to caudal analgesia. We conclude that in BIS-monitored patients (3-6 years) with infra-umbilical surgeries have shown a reduction in consumption of IV propofol due to caudal epidural blockade.
    Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons 04/2015; 20(2). DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.151551

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