Article

Increased levels of immune activation in the genital tract of healthy young women from sub-Saharan Africa

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94117, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 08/2010; 24(13):2069-74. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833c323b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4 T cells) than a similar population in the United States.
A cross-sectional study nested in a phase 1 microbicide trial.
Cervical cytobrushes were collected from 18 to 24-year-old women in San Francisco, California, USA (n = 18) and Kisumu, Kenya (n = 36) at enrollment into a phase 1 microbicide trial. All participants tested negative for HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas, and had abstained from sex for at least 7 days prior to enrollment. Cryopreserved T-cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry in a central laboratory. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor levels were assayed in cervicovaginal lavage samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare immune parameters between sites.
The total number of endocervical CD4(+) T cells was slightly higher in participants from San Francisco, but participants from Kisumu had a substantially higher number and proportion of CD4(+) T cells expressing the early activation marker CD69, with and without the HIV coreceptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5, and a greater proportion of activated CD8(+) T cells. Median (interquartile range) genital levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor were lower in participants from Kisumu compared with those from San Francisco [190 (96-519) vs. 474 (206 817) pg/ml, P < 0.03].
Activated mucosal T cells were increased in the genital tract of young, sexually transmitted infection/HIV-free Kenyan women, independent of common genital coinfections, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor levels were reduced. The cause of these mucosal immune differences is not known, but could partly explain the high HIV incidence in young women from sub-Saharan Africa.

Full-text

Available from: Ibrahim I Daud, Jun 24, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
85 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PD 404,182 (PD) is a synthetic compound that was found to compromise HIV integrity via interaction with a nonenvelope protein viral structural component (A. M. Chamoun et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:672–681, 2012). The present study evaluates the potential of PD as an anti-HIV microbicide and establishes PD's virucidal activity toward another pathogen, herpes simplex virus (HSV). We show that the anti-HIV-1 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PD, when diluted in seminal plasma, is ∼1 μM, similar to the IC50 determined in cell culture growth medium, and that PD retains full anti-HIV-1 activity after incubation in cervical fluid at 37°C for at least 24 h. In addition, PD is nontoxic toward vaginal commensal Lactobacillus species (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], >300 μM), freshly activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CC50, ∼200 μM), and primary CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (CC50, >300 μM). PD also exhibited high stability in pH-adjusted Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline with little to no activity loss after 8 weeks at pH 4 and 42°C, indicating suitability for formulation for transportation and storage in developing countries. Finally, for the first time, we show that PD inactivates herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 at submicromolar concentrations. Due to the prevalence of HSV infection, the ability of PD to inactivate HSV may provide an additional incentive for use as a microbicide. The ability of PD to inactivate both HIV-1 and HSV, combined with its low toxicity and high stability, warrants additional studies for the evaluation of PD's microbicidal candidacy in animals and humans.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2014; 58(2). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02000-13 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elevated immune activation is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. Tenofovir (TFV) has immunomodulatory properties in vitro, but how this extends in vivo remains unknown. HIV-negative adults received daily coformulated TFV disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg for 30 days followed by a 30-day washout. Markers of T-cell activation, inflammation, and cytokines were measured before drug and on days 30 (on drug) and 60 (30-day washout). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance/pairwise comparisons. Intracellular disposition of TFV-diphosphate and FTC-triphosphate in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and monocytes was characterized, and the relationship with immune activation was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. T-cell activation was available in 19 participants. CD38/HLA-DR coexpression on CD8 T-cells decreased from baseline to day 30 (3.97% vs. 2.71%; P = 0.03) and day 60 (3.97% vs. 2.41%; P = 0.008). Soluble CD27 decreased from baseline to day 60 (184.1 vs. 168.4 pg/mL; P = 0.001). Cytokines and inflammation markers were not significantly different. TFV-diphosphate and FTC-triphosphate were approximately 4-fold higher in monocytes vs. CD4 and CD8 T-cells but neither correlated with activation markers. TFV disoproxil fumarate/FTC therapy was associated with decreased T-cell activation in HIV-negative adults, which could contribute to the antiviral effect of pre-exposure prophylaxis (NCT01040091; www.clinicaltrials.gov).
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2015; 68(5):1. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000529 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Schistosoma haematobium is a waterborne parasite that may cause female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), characterized by genital mucosal lesions. There is clinical and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between FGS and HIV. We investigated the impact of FGS on HIV target cell density and expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 in blood and cervical cytobrush samples. Furthermore we evaluated the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on these cell populations. Design: The study followed a case-control design with post treatment follow-up, nested in an on-going field study on FGS. Methods: Blood and cervical cytobrush samples were collected from FGS negative and positive women for flow cytometry analyses. Urine samples were investigated for schistosome ova by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: FGS was associated with a higher frequency of CD14(+) cells (monocytes) in blood (11.5% in FGS+ vs. 2.2% in FGS-, p = 0.042). Frequencies of CD4(+) cells expressing CCR5 were higher in blood samples from FGS+ than from FGS-women (4.7% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.018). The CD14(+) cell population decreased significantly in both compartments after anti-schistosomal treatment (p = 0.043). Although the frequency of CD4+ cells did not change after treatment, frequencies of CCR5 expression by CD4+ cells decreased significantly in both compartments (from 3.4% to 0.5% in blood, p = 0.036; and from 42.4% to 5.6% in genital samples, p = 0.025). Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that FGS may increase the risk of HIV acquisition, not only through damage of the mucosal epithelial barrier, but also by affecting HIV target cell populations, and that anti-schistosomal treatment can modify this.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98593. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098593 · 3.53 Impact Factor