[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The private higher education sector of the Philippines is proportionally one of the largest in the world. It is the only system where proprietary institutions also assume importance along with the sectarian not-for-profit institutions, and their behaviour appears parallel, which works on the rules of the market. The private higher education sector of the Philippines has a long history, which can be traced from the Spanish regime. It grew largely in the post independence period in the absence of resources of the state for higher education along with any precise policy. The private sector received further impetus through the growing private demand. A closer look at the functioning of these institutions reveals that they heavily rely upon tuition revenues, predominantly upon a student client that is by no means healthy. The private higher education institutions have failed to trap other private resources. These institutions also have a wide disparity in terms of quality, from lowest to the highest. Although there exists the private and state scholarships, but the equity issue still appears to be unattended in true sense, and are affected by quality of institutions, location, tuition fees and economic background. In spite of these demerits the transition rate between secondary and higher education in Philippines remains exceptionally high, along with the participation ratio, which is comparable to a developed nation. It is the
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an environment to support policies of free basic education, driven by a global diffusion of the central principles of education as a human right. This article considers the function of international human rights law and political movements within educational policymaking and practice, specifically regarding policy efforts to increase school access. Using the Philippines as a case study, this article addresses the guarantees for free secondary education in Philippine legal and policy documents, and assesses the current government policy for secondary education expansion—the Education Service Contracting (ESC) Program—to discuss the impact of the country’s human rights commitments on educational policy. Using Kingdon’s multiple streams model of policy analysis, I account for human rights law within ESC policymaking and determine the drivers that have led the country to take up its current model of private expansion. In conclusion, the human right to a free education should be deliberated, not as a trump card to supersede local educational obligations, but as a guiding principle, placed within problem, solution, and political contexts to assess the current state of education and adequately protect those who need publicly funded schooling the most.
Educational Research for Policy and Practice 10/2011; 11(3). DOI:10.1007/s10671-011-9118-5
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