Pediatrics: Acute kidney injury leads to pediatric patient mortality.
ABSTRACT Data are lacking on the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children admitted to an intensive care unit. Schneider and colleagues have now performed a large-scale assessment of the use of the rIFle criteria for characterizing AKI in children and have determined the mortality and morbidity associated with AKI in this patient group.
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition, the diagnosis of which depends on serum creatinine, which is a delayed and unreliable indicator of AKI. Fortunately, understanding the early stress response of the kidney to acute injuries has revealed a number of potential biomarkers. The current status of the most promising of these novel AKI biomarkers, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and interleukin (IL)-18, is reviewed. In particular, NGAL is emerging as an excellent biomarker in the urine and plasma, for the early prediction of AKI, for monitoring clinical trials in AKI, and for the prognosis of AKI in several common clinical scenarios. However, biomarker combinations may be required to improve our ability to predict AKI and its outcomes in a context-specific manner. It is vital that additional large future studies demonstrate the association between biomarkers and hard clinical outcomes independent of serum creatinine concentrations and that randomization to a treatment for AKI based on high biomarker levels results in an improvement in clinical outcomes.Current opinion in pediatrics 01/2011; 23(2):194-200. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328343f4dd
- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2011; 26(2):448-54. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfq800
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ABSTRACT: There has been a growing interest in the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion. Repetitive concussion and subconcussion have been linked to a spectrum of neurological sequelae, including postconcussion syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia pugilistica. A more common risk than chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the season-ending or career-ending effects of concussion or its mismanagement. To effectively prevent and treat the sequelae of concussion, it will be important to understand the basic processes involved. Reviewed in this paper are the forces behind the primary phase of injury in mild TBI, as well as the immediate and delayed cellular events responsible for the secondary phase of injury leading to neuronal dysfunction and possible cell death. Advanced neuroimaging sequences have recently been developed that have the potential to increase the sensitivity of standard MRI to detect both structural and functional abnormalities associated with concussion, and have provided further insight into the potential underlying pathophysiology. Also discussed are the potential long-term effects of repetitive mild TBI, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Much of the data regarding this syndrome is limited to postmortem analyses, and at present there is no animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy described in the literature. As this arena of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative to appropriately model concussive and even subconcussive injuries in an attempt to understand, prevent, and treat the associated chronic neurodegenerative sequelae.Neurosurgical FOCUS 12/2012; 33(6):E5. DOI:10.3171/2012.10.FOCUS12284