Opposing roles of Dnmt1 in early- and late-stage murine prostate cancer.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 09/2010; 30(17):4159-74. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00235-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that tumor progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model is characterized by global DNA hypomethylation initiated during early-stage disease and locus-specific DNA hypermethylation occurring predominantly in late-stage disease. Here, we utilized Dnmt1 hypomorphic alleles to examine the role of Dnmt1 in normal prostate development and in prostate cancer in TRAMP. Prostate tissue morphology and differentiation status was normal in Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice, despite global DNA hypomethylation. TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice also displayed global DNA hypomethylation, but were characterized by altered tumor phenotype. Specifically, TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice exhibited slightly increased tumor incidence and significantly increased pathological progression at early ages and, conversely, displayed slightly decreased tumor incidence and significantly decreased pathological progression at advanced ages. Remarkably, hypomorphic Dnmt1 expression abrogated local and distant site macrometastases. Thus, Dnmt1 has tumor suppressor activity in early-stage prostate cancer, and oncogenic activity in late stage prostate cancer and metastasis. Consistent with the biological phenotype, epigenomic studies revealed that TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice show dramatically reduced CpG island and promoter DNA hypermethylation in late-stage primary tumors compared to control mice. Taken together, the data reveal a crucial role for Dnmt1 in prostate cancer and suggest that Dnmt1-targeted interventions may have utility specifically for advanced and/or metastatic prostate cancer.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comparative analysis of expression profiles between early and late stage cancers can help to understand cancer progression and metastasis mechanisms and to predict the clinical aggressiveness of cancer. The observed stage-dependent expression changes can be explained by genetic and epigenetic alterations as well as transcription dysregulation. Unlike genetic and epigenetic alterations, however, activity changes of transcription factors, generally occurring at the post-transcriptional or post-translational level, are hard to detect and quantify. Here we developed a statistical framework to infer the activity changes of transcription factors by simultaneously taking into account the contributions of genetic and epigenetic alterations to mRNA expression variations. Applied to kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the model underscored the role of methylation as a significant contributor to stage-dependent expression alterations and identified key transcription factors as potential drivers of cancer progression. Integrating copy number, methylation, and transcription factor activity signatures to explain stage-dependent expression alterations presented a precise and comprehensive view on the underlying mechanisms during KIRC progression.
    Genome Medicine 12/2014; 6(12):117. DOI:10.1186/s13073-014-0117-z · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation are linked to aging and age-related disease. We utilized 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old Ames dwarf and their wild-type siblings to examine the genotype and age-related differences in the expression of methyltransferase enzymes related to DNA methylation in the liver, glycine-N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We found that DNMT proteins and transcripts are differentially expressed in dwarf mice compared with wild-type siblings that can be attributed to age and/or genotype. However, DNMT1 protein expression is drastically reduced compared with wild-type controls at every age. DNMT3a protein levels coincide with differences observed in DNMT activity. Growth hormone appears to modulate expression of DNMT1 and 3a in dwarf liver tissue and primary hepatocytes. Therefore, growth hormone may contribute to age-related processes, DNA methylation, and, ultimately, longevity.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 11/2013; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glt133 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Site-specific hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes accompanied by genome-wide hypomethylation are epigenetic hallmarks of malignancy. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive these linked changes in DNA methylation remain obscure. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the principle enzyme responsible for maintaining methylation patterns is commonly dysregulated in tumors. Replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) is an N-terminal domain of DNMT1 that inhibits DNA-binding and catalytic activity, suggesting that RFTS deletion would result in a gain of DNMT1 function. However, a substantial body of data suggested that RFTS is required for DNMT1 activity. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of RFTS alters DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation during malignant transformation. Compared to full-length DNMT1, ectopic expression of hyperactive DNMT1-DRFTS caused greater malignant transformation and enhanced promoter methylation with condensed chromatin structure that silenced DAPK and DUOX1 expression. Simultaneously, deletion of RFTS impaired DNMT1 chromatin association with pericentromeric Satellite 2 (SAT2) repeat sequences and produced DNA demethylation at SAT2 repeats and globally. To our knowledge, RFTS-deleted DNMT1 is the first single factor that can reprogram focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in parallel during malignant transformation. Our evidence suggests that the RFTS domain of DNMT1 is a target responsible for epigenetic changes in cancer.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10/2014; 13(20):3222-3231. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.950886 · 5.01 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014