Article

Opposing roles of Dnmt1 in early- and late-stage murine prostate cancer.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Molecular and cellular biology (Impact Factor: 6.06). 09/2010; 30(17):4159-74. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00235-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that tumor progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model is characterized by global DNA hypomethylation initiated during early-stage disease and locus-specific DNA hypermethylation occurring predominantly in late-stage disease. Here, we utilized Dnmt1 hypomorphic alleles to examine the role of Dnmt1 in normal prostate development and in prostate cancer in TRAMP. Prostate tissue morphology and differentiation status was normal in Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice, despite global DNA hypomethylation. TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice also displayed global DNA hypomethylation, but were characterized by altered tumor phenotype. Specifically, TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice exhibited slightly increased tumor incidence and significantly increased pathological progression at early ages and, conversely, displayed slightly decreased tumor incidence and significantly decreased pathological progression at advanced ages. Remarkably, hypomorphic Dnmt1 expression abrogated local and distant site macrometastases. Thus, Dnmt1 has tumor suppressor activity in early-stage prostate cancer, and oncogenic activity in late stage prostate cancer and metastasis. Consistent with the biological phenotype, epigenomic studies revealed that TRAMP; Dnmt1 hypomorphic mice show dramatically reduced CpG island and promoter DNA hypermethylation in late-stage primary tumors compared to control mice. Taken together, the data reveal a crucial role for Dnmt1 in prostate cancer and suggest that Dnmt1-targeted interventions may have utility specifically for advanced and/or metastatic prostate cancer.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
98 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research on castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has focused primarily on functional alterations of the androgen receptor (AR). However, little is known about the loss of AR gene expression itself and the possible contribution of AR negative cells to CRPC. Human and murine prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) were evaluated with antibodies specific for E2F1, DNA methyltransferase 1 or AR. The human prostate cancer TMA consisted of clinical samples ranging from normal tissue to samples of metastatic disease. The murine TMA was comprised of benign, localized or metastatic prostate cancer acquired from TRAMP mice treated with castration and/or 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased nuclear DNMT1 staining in localized PCa (P < 0.0001) and metastatic PCa (P < 0.0001) compared to normal tissue. Examination of specific diagnoses revealed that Gleason seven tumors exhibited greater nuclear DNMT1 staining than Gleason six tumors (P < 0.05) and that metastatic tissue exhibited greater levels of nuclear DNMT1 than Gleason seven tumors (P < 0.01). Evaluation of the murine tissue cores revealed that 8.2% and 8.1% of benign tissue cores stained positive for E2F1 and DNMT1 respectively, while 97.0% were AR positive. Conversely, 81% and 100% of tumors were positive for E2F1and DNMT1 respectively. This was in stark contrast to only 18% of tumors positive for AR. Treatment of mice with 5Aza reduced DNMT1 staining by 30%, while AR increased by 27%. These findings demonstrate that the E2F1/DNMT1 inhibitory axis of AR transcription is activated during the emergence of CRPC. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 09/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "genes-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behaviour was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and "paradoxical" effects of different anticancer drugs depending on the cellular genetic context/signaling network are discussed.
    Gene 08/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in the transcriptional repression of genes controlling a variety of physiological processes, including hematopoiesis. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is a key enzyme involved in the somatic inheritance of DNA methylation, and thus plays a critical role in epigenomic stability. Aberrant methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of human cancer and hematologic malignancies in particular. To gain deeper insight into the function of Dnmt1 in lymphoid malignancies, we genetically inactivated Dnmt1 in a mouse model of MYC-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis. We show that loss of Dnmt1 delays lymphomagenesis by suppressing normal hematopoiesis and impairing tumor cell proliferation. Acute inactivation of Dnmt1 in primary lymphoma cells rapidly induced apoptosis, indicating that Dnmt1 is required to sustain T-cell lymphomas. Using high resolution genome-wide profiling, we identified differentially methylated regions between control and Dnmt1-deficient lymphomas, demonstrating a locus-specific function for Dnmt1 in both maintenance and de novo promoter methylation. Dnmt1 activity is independent of Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b in de novo promoter methylation of the H2-Ab1 gene. Collectively, these data show for the first time that Dnmt1 is critical for the prevention and maintenance of T-cell lymphomas and contributes to aberrant methylation by both de novo and maintenance methylation.
    Molecular and cellular biology 09/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
5 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014