Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children's hospital in Glasgow.
ABSTRACT The incidence of vitamin D deficiency is unclear in the context of continuing demographic changes and the introduction of new public health measures.
All cases in which vitamin D deficiency was suspected as the primary cause of the clinical presentation were studied.
Between 2002 and 2008, 160 cases of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency were identified with twice as many cases in 2008 (n, 42) as in the previous years. The median age of the cohort was 24 months (range 2 weeks-14 years).Three cases were recorded in children of European background, whereas the rest were in children of South Asian, Middle Eastern or sub-Saharan ethnic background. Presenting features included bowed legs in 64 (40%) and a fit in 19 (12%). In one infant, concerns were raised following a presentation with cardiac failure and hypocalcaemia.
Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency remains prevalent in the West of Scotland. There is a need for effective public health education, action and surveillance.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D has important benefits in reducing the risk of many conditions and diseases. Those diseases for which the benefits are well supported and that have large economic effects include many types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, several bacterial and viral infections, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Europeans generally have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels owing to the high latitudes, largely indoor living, low natural dietary sources of vitamin D such as cold-water ocean fish, and lack of effective vitamin D fortification of food in most countries. Vitamin D dose-disease response relations were estimated from observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The reduction in direct plus indirect economic burden of disease was based on increasing the mean serum 25(OH)D level to 40 ng/mL, which could be achieved by a daily intake of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D. For 2007, the reduction is estimated at euro187,000 million/year. The estimated cost of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D3/day along with ancillary costs such as education and testing might be about euro10,000 million/year. Sources of vitamin D could include a combination of food fortification, supplements, and natural and artificial UVB irradiation, if properly acquired. Additional randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate the benefits and risks of vitamin D supplementation. However, steps to increase serum 25(OH)D levels can be implemented now based on what is already known.Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 04/2009; 99(2-3):104-13. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To define the demographics and clinical characteristics of cases presenting with nutritional rickets to paediatric centres in Sydney, Australia. Retrospective descriptive study of 126 cases seen from 1993 to 2003 with a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency and/or confirmed rickets defined by long bone x ray changes. A steady increase was seen in the number of cases per year, with a doubling of cases from 2002 to 2003. Median age of presentation was 15.1 months, with 25% presenting at less than 6 months of age. The most common presenting features were hypocalcaemic seizures (33%) and bowed legs (22%). Males presented at a younger age, with a lower weight SDS, and more often with seizures. The caseload was almost exclusively from recently immigrated children or first generation offspring of immigrant parents, with the region of origin predominantly the Indian subcontinent (37%), Africa (33%), and the Middle East (11%). Seventy nine per cent of the cases were born in Australia. Eleven cases (all aged <7 months) presented atypically with hyperphosphataemia. This large case series shows that a significant and increasing caseload of vitamin D deficiency remains, even in a developed country with high sunlight hours. Cases mirror recent immigration trends. Since birth or residence in Australia does not appear to be protective, screening of at risk immigrant families should be implemented through public health policies.Archives of Disease in Childhood 07/2006; 91(7):564-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A survey of West Midlands paediatricians in 2001 identified 24 cases of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in children less than 5 years of age. The overall incidence was 7.5 per 100,000 children per year with notable differences in incidence per ethnic group.Archives of Disease in Childhood 08/2006; 91(7):606-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor