Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells markedly attenuate brain infarct size and improve neurological function in rats

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Journal of Translational Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2010; 8:63. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-8-63
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on brain infarction area (BIA) and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS) was investigated.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 30) were divided into IS plus intra-venous 1 mL saline (at 0, 12 and 24 h after IS induction) (control group) and IS plus intra-venous ADMSCs (2.0 x 106) (treated interval as controls) (treatment group) after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery. The rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested on day 21 after the procedure.
The results showed that BIA was larger in control group than in treatment group (p < 0.001). The sensorimotor functional test (Corner test) identified a higher frequency of turning movement to left in control group than in treatment group (p < 0.05). mRNA expressions of Bax, caspase 3, interleukin (IL)-18, toll-like receptor-4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were higher, whereas Bcl-2 and IL-8/Gro were lower in control group than in treatment group (all p < 0.05). Western blot demonstrated a lower CXCR4 and stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in control group than in treatment group (all p < 0.01). Immunohistofluorescent staining showed lower expressions of CXCR4, SDF-1, von Willebran factor and doublecortin, whereas the number of apoptotic nuclei on TUNEL assay was higher in control group than in treatment group (all p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining showed that cellular proliferation and number of small vessels were lower but glial fibrillary acid protein was higher in control group than in treatment group (all p < 0.01).
ADMSC therapy significantly limited BIA and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after acute IS.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Rat adipose tissue-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (rAD-MSCs) have proven to be safe in experimental animal models of stroke. However, in order to use human AD-MSCs (hAD-MSCs) as a treatment for stroke patients, a proof of concept is needed. We analyzed whether the xenogeneic hAD-MSCs were as safe and effective as allogeneic rAD-MSCs in permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (pMCAO) in rats.Methods Sprague¿Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, which were intravenously injected with xenogeneic hAD-MSCs (2 × 106), allogeneic rAD-MSCs (2 × 106) or saline (control) at 30 min after pMCAO. Behavior, cell implantation, lesion size and cell death were evaluated. Brain markers such as GFAP (glial fibrillary acid protein), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and SYP (synaptophysin) and tumor formation were analyzed.ResultsCompared to controls, recovery was significantly better at 24 h and continued to be so at 14 d after IV administration of either hAD-MSCs or rAD-MSCs. No reduction in lesion size or migration/implantation of cells in the damaged brain were observed in the treatment groups. Nevertheless, cell death was significantly reduced with respect to the control group in both treatment groups. VEGF and SYP levels were significantly higher, while those of GFAP were lower in the treated groups. At three months, there was no tumor formation.ConclusionshAD-MSCs and rAD-MSCs were safe and without side effects or tumor formation. Both treatment groups showed equal efficacy in terms of functional recovery and decreased ischemic brain damage (cell death and glial scarring) and resulted in higher angiogenesis and synaptogenesis marker levels.

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