Everolimus in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a slowly progressive hereditary disorder that usually leads to end-stage renal disease. Although the underlying gene mutations were identified several years ago, efficacious therapy to curtail cyst growth and prevent renal failure is not available. Experimental and observational studies suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a critical role in cyst growth.
In this 2-year, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 433 patients with ADPKD to receive either placebo or the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. The primary outcome was the change in total kidney volume, as measured on magnetic resonance imaging, at 12 and 24 months.
Total kidney volume increased between baseline and 1 year by 102 ml in the everolimus group, versus 157 ml in the placebo group (P=0.02) and between baseline and 2 years by 230 ml and 301 ml, respectively (P=0.06). Cyst volume increased by 76 ml in the everolimus group and 98 ml in the placebo group after 1 year (P=0.27) and by 181 ml and 215 ml, respectively, after 2 years (P=0.28). Parenchymal volume increased by 26 ml in the everolimus group and 62 ml in the placebo group after 1 year (P=0.003) and by 56 ml and 93 ml, respectively, after 2 years (P=0.11). The mean decrement in the estimated glomerular filtration rate after 24 months was 8.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area in the everolimus group versus 7.7 ml per minute in the placebo group (P=0.15). Drug-specific adverse events were more common in the everolimus group; the rate of infection was similar in the two groups.
Within the 2-year study period,as compared with placebo, everolimus slowed the increase in total kidney volume of patients with ADPKD but did not slow the progression of renal impairment [corrected]. (Funded by Novartis; EudraCT number, 2006-001485-16; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00414440.)
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ABSTRACT: Background Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. Results There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril-telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. Conclusions Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline in the estimated GFR. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study B] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01885559 .).New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progression to end-stage kidney disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) ultimately occurs in most patients, even with the best available therapy. Clinical trials that test strategies to prevent or at least forestall progression are emblematic of the current era, yet none, to date, have greatly affected outcome. Because elevated blood pressure in patients with this disease is associated with greater total kidney volume as well as activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the progression of kidney disease, trials of blood-pressure control and medications that might work are crucial. It has been suggested that treatment with multiple agents . . .New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) occurs in 75-90% of patients affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which affects 1∶400-1,000 adults and arises from inherited mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. PLD can lead to bile duct obstructions, infected or bleeding cysts, and hepatomegaly, which can diminish quality of life. At present, no effective, approved therapy exists for ADPKD or PLD. We recently showed that inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) with a small molecule inhibitor, STA-2842, induced the degradation of multiple HSP90-dependent client proteins that contribute to ADPKD pathogenesis and slowed the progression of renal cystogenesis in mice with conditional deletion of Pkd1. Here, we analyzed the effects of STA-2842 on liver size and cystic burden in Pkd-/- mice with established PLD. Using magnetic resonance imaging over time, we demonstrate that ten weeks of STA-2842 treatment significantly reduced both liver mass and cystic index suggesting selective elimination of cystic tissue. Pre-treatment cystic epithelia contain abundant HSP90; the degree of reduction in cysts was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation-associated signaling proteins EGFR and others, and induced cleavage of caspase 8 and PARP1, and correlated with degree of HSP90 inhibition and with inactivation of ERK1/2. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibition is worth further evaluation as a therapeutic approach for patients with PLD.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114403. · 3.53 Impact Factor