Stabilization of ATF4 protein is required for the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the avian neural crest.
ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) permits neural crest cells to delaminate from the epithelial ectoderm and to migrate extensively in the embryonic environment. In this study, we have identified ATF4, a basic-leucine-zipper transcription factor, as one of the neural crest EMT regulators. Although ATF4 alone was not sufficient to drive the formation of migratory neural crest cells, ATF4 cooperated with Sox9 to induce neural crest EMT by controlling the expression of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion molecules. This was likely, at least in part, by inducing the expression of Foxd3, which encodes another neural crest transcription factor. We also found that the ATF4 protein level was strictly regulated by proteasomal degradation and p300-mediated stabilization, allowing ATF4 protein to accumulate in the nuclei of neural crest cells undergoing EMT. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of the regulation of protein stability in the neural crest EMT.
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ABSTRACT: Actin cytoskeleton dynamics lie at the heart of cell mechanosensing signaling. In fibroblast cells, two perinuclear acto-myosin structures, the actin cap and the transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) line, are components of a physical pathway transducing extracellular physical signals to changes in nuclear shape and movements. We recently demonstrated the existence of a previously uncharacterized third apical perinuclear actin organization in epithelial cells that forms during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by TGFβ (TGFβ). A common regulatory mechanism for these different perinuclear actin architectures has emerged with the identification of a novel family of actin bundling proteins, the Refilins. Here we provide updates on some characteristics of Refilin proteins, and we discuss potential function of the Refilins in cell mechanosensing signaling.Bioarchitecture. 09/2011; 1(5):245-249.