The effects of electrical stimulation of the femur, on blood pressure, were examined in anesthetized rats. Two small holes, 3-4 mm apart, were manually drilled into the femur down to the bone marrow. Following this, two stainless-steel electrodes were inserted into the holes, and an electrical square wave current was passed between the electrodes. In central nervous system-intact rats, electrical stimulation of the femur at 5 and 10 mA at 20 Hz for 20 s produced an intensity-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. This response was abolished by severance of the femoral and sciatic nerves ipsilateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, the renal sympathetic efferent nerve activities (as a representative index of vasoconstrictor activities) decreased following the electrical stimulation of the femur. However, in acutely-spinalized rats (spinalized at the cervical level) the same stimulation increased renal sympathetic efferent nerve activities and mean arterial blood pressure. It was concluded that high-intensity electrical stimulation of the femur reflexively affected blood pressure. It can be inferred that the osteal high-threshold receptors and/or fibers are involved in the afferent nerve pathway, and the efferent nerve pathway is the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve. The excitatory response properties at the propriospinal level are modified into an inhibitory response by supraspinal structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adult brain exhibits a local increase in cortical blood flow in response to external stimulus. However, broadly varying hemodynamic responses in the brains of newborn and young infants have been reported. Particular controversy exists over whether the "true" neonatal response to stimulation consists of a decrease or an increase in local deoxyhemoglobin, corresponding to a positive (adult-like) or negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), respectively. A major difficulty with previous studies has been the variability in human subjects and measurement paradigms. Here, we present a systematic study in neonatal rats that charts the evolution of the cortical blood flow response during postnatal development using exposed-cortex multispectral optical imaging. We demonstrate that postnatal-day-12-13 rats (equivalent to human newborns) exhibit an "inverted" hemodynamic response (increasing deoxyhemoglobin, negative BOLD) with early signs of oxygen consumption followed by delayed, active constriction of pial arteries. We observed that the hemodynamic response then matures via development of an initial hyperemic (positive BOLD) phase that eventually masks oxygen consumption and balances vasoconstriction toward adulthood. We also observed that neonatal responses are particularly susceptible to stimulus-evoked systemic blood pressure increases, leading to cortical hyperemia that resembles adult positive BOLD responses. We propose that this confound may account for much of the variability in prior studies of neonatal cortical hemodynamics. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of infant and child development may be profoundly influenced by the maturing neurovascular and autoregulatory systems of the neonatal brain.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; 110(11). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1212785110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of hypertension involves autonomic nervous system dysfunction, as well as a multitude of immune responses. However, the close interplay of these systems in the development and establishment of high blood pressure and its associated pathophysiology remains elusive and is the subject of extensive investigation. It has been proposed that an imbalance of the neuro-immune systems is a result of an enhancement of the "proinflammatory sympathetic" arm in conjunction with dampening of the "anti-inflammatory parasympathetic" arm of the autonomic nervous system. In addition to the neuronal modulation of the immune system, it is proposed that key inflammatory responses are relayed back to the central nervous system and alter the neuronal communication to the periphery. The overall objective of this review is to critically discuss recent advances in the understanding of autonomic immune modulation, and propose a unifying hypothesis underlying the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of hypertension, with particular emphasis on the bone marrow, as it is a crucial meeting point for neural, immune, and vascular networks.
Current Hypertension Reports 05/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1007/s11906-013-0361-4 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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