Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity with steal phenomenon is associated with increased diffusion in white matter of patients with Moyamoya disease.
ABSTRACT Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) with steal phenomenon is an independent predictor for stroke and may indicate tissue exposed to episodic low-grade ischemia. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated using diffusion-weighted MRI is effective in characterizing focal brain ischemia and subtle structural changes in normal-appearing white matter (WM). We hypothesized that regions of steal phenomenon are associated with increased ADC in normal-appearing WM of patients with Moyamoya disease.
Twenty-two patients with unilateral CVR impairment secondary to Moyamoya disease and 12 healthy control subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MRI and functional MRI mapping of the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia. Parametric maps of ADC and CVR were calculated, coregistered, and segmented using automated image processing methods. ADC of normal-appearing WM was compared between hemispheres, and between WM with negative CVR (ie, steal phenomenon) and WM with positive CVR.
In patients, ADC of normal-appearing WM was elevated in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CVR impairment compared with the contralateral hemisphere (P<0.005) and in WM with negative CVR compared with WM with positive CVR (P<0.001). WM in regions of steal phenomenon within the affected hemisphere had higher ADC than homologous contralateral WM (P<0.005). In control subjects, negative CVR in WM was not associated with elevated ADC.
Regions of steal phenomenon are spatially correlated with elevated ADC in normal-appearing WM of patients with Moyamoya disease. This structural abnormality may reflect low-grade ischemic injury after exhaustion of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity.
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ABSTRACT: Epileptic seizures are a common presentation in patients with newly diagnosed brain arteriovenous malformations, but the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the seizures remain poorly understood. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and conventional angiography to determine whether seizure-prone patients with brain arteriovenous malformations exhibit impaired cerebrovascular reserve or morphological angiographic features predictive of seizures. Twenty consecutive patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations were recruited (10 with and 10 without epileptic seizures) along with 12 age-matched healthy controls. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI was performed while applying iso-oxic step changes in end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) to obtain quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity measurements. The brain arteriovenous malformation morphology was evaluated by angiography, to determine to what extent limitations of arterial blood supply or the presence of restricted venous outflow and tissue congestion correlated with seizure susceptibility. Only patients with seizures exhibited impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reactivity by magnetic resonance imaging (0.11 ± 0.10 versus 0.25 ± 0.07, respectively; P < 0.001) and venous drainage patterns suggestive of tissue congestion on angiography. However, cerebrovascular reactivity changes were not of a magnitude suggestive of arterial steal, and were probably compatible with venous congestion in aetiology. Our findings demonstrate a strong association between impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reserve and epileptic seizure presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. The impaired cerebrovascular reserve may be associated with venous congestion. Quantitative measurements of cerebrovascular reactivity using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI appear to correlate with seizure susceptibility in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation.Brain 01/2011; 134(Pt 1):100-9. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of moyamoya disease (MMD) in adults. Chronic hypoperfusion in frontal lobes can lead to subtle brain injury, resulting in cognitive dysfunctions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in normal-appearing white matter on conventional magnetic resonance imaging correlates with cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of ADC with executive function in patients with MMD. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (25 women and 6 men; mean age, 32.6 ± 10.4 years) were included in this study. Executive function was evaluated by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) at 21.5 ± 7.5 years after disease onset. ADC was measured in the normal-appearing frontal white matter. RESULTS: ADC was statistically related to the occurrence of executive dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P = .0179). Total FAB score and ADC were negatively correlated (r(2) = .22; P = .0072; Spearman correlation coefficient, -.41; P = .024). Elevated ADC predicted executive dysfunction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, .73; 95% confidence interval, .55-.91; P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: The association of ADC with executive function might suggest that ADC is useful in screening for executive dysfunction during follow-up in the outpatient setting.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 04/2013;
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ABSTRACT: With a growing need for specific biomarkers in vascular diseases, there has been a surging interest in mapping cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) of the brain. This index can be measured by conducting a hypercapnia challenge while acquiring Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals. A BOLD signal increase with hypercapnia is the expected outcome and represents the majority of literature reports; in this work we report an intriguing observation of an apparently negative BOLD CVR response at 3 Tesla, during inhalation of 5% CO2 with balance medical air. These "negative-CVR" clusters were specifically located in the ventricular regions of the brain, where CSF is abundant and results in an intense baseline signal. The amplitude of the CVR response was -0.51±0.44% (N=14, age 26±4years). We hypothesized that this observation might not be due to a decrease in oxygenation but rather a volume effect in which bright CSF signal is replaced by a less intensive blood signal as a result of vasodilation. To test this, we performed an inversion-recovery (IR) experiment to suppress the CSF signal (N=10, age 27±5years). This maneuver in imaging sequence reversed the sign of the signal response (to 0.66±0.25%), suggesting that the volume change was the predominant reason for the apparently negative CVR in the BOLD experiment. Further support of this hypothesis was provided by a BOLD hyperoxia experiment, in which no voxels showed a negative response, presumably because vasodilation is not usually associated with this challenge. Absolute CBF response to hypercapnia was measured in a new group of subjects (N=8, age 29±7years) and it was found that CBF in ventricular regions increased by 48% upon CO2 inhalation, suggesting that blood oxygenation most likely increased rather than decreased. The findings from this study suggest that CO2 inhalation results in the dilation of ventricular vessels accompanied by shrinkage in CSF space, which is responsible for the apparently negative CVR in brain ventricles.NeuroImage 07/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor