Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity with steal phenomenon is associated with increased diffusion in white matter of patients with Moyamoya disease.

Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Stroke (Impact Factor: 6.16). 08/2010; 41(8):1610-6. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.579540
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) with steal phenomenon is an independent predictor for stroke and may indicate tissue exposed to episodic low-grade ischemia. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated using diffusion-weighted MRI is effective in characterizing focal brain ischemia and subtle structural changes in normal-appearing white matter (WM). We hypothesized that regions of steal phenomenon are associated with increased ADC in normal-appearing WM of patients with Moyamoya disease.
Twenty-two patients with unilateral CVR impairment secondary to Moyamoya disease and 12 healthy control subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MRI and functional MRI mapping of the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia. Parametric maps of ADC and CVR were calculated, coregistered, and segmented using automated image processing methods. ADC of normal-appearing WM was compared between hemispheres, and between WM with negative CVR (ie, steal phenomenon) and WM with positive CVR.
In patients, ADC of normal-appearing WM was elevated in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CVR impairment compared with the contralateral hemisphere (P<0.005) and in WM with negative CVR compared with WM with positive CVR (P<0.001). WM in regions of steal phenomenon within the affected hemisphere had higher ADC than homologous contralateral WM (P<0.005). In control subjects, negative CVR in WM was not associated with elevated ADC.
Regions of steal phenomenon are spatially correlated with elevated ADC in normal-appearing WM of patients with Moyamoya disease. This structural abnormality may reflect low-grade ischemic injury after exhaustion of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With a growing need for specific biomarkers in vascular diseases, there has been a surging interest in mapping cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) of the brain. This index can be measured by conducting a hypercapnia challenge while acquiring Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals. A BOLD signal increase with hypercapnia is the expected outcome and represents the majority of literature reports; in this work we report an intriguing observation of an apparently negative BOLD CVR response at 3 Tesla, during inhalation of 5% CO2 with balance medical air. These "negative-CVR" clusters were specifically located in the ventricular regions of the brain, where CSF is abundant and results in an intense baseline signal. The amplitude of the CVR response was -0.51±0.44% (N=14, age 26±4years). We hypothesized that this observation might not be due to a decrease in oxygenation but rather a volume effect in which bright CSF signal is replaced by a less intensive blood signal as a result of vasodilation. To test this, we performed an inversion-recovery (IR) experiment to suppress the CSF signal (N=10, age 27±5years). This maneuver in imaging sequence reversed the sign of the signal response (to 0.66±0.25%), suggesting that the volume change was the predominant reason for the apparently negative CVR in the BOLD experiment. Further support of this hypothesis was provided by a BOLD hyperoxia experiment, in which no voxels showed a negative response, presumably because vasodilation is not usually associated with this challenge. Absolute CBF response to hypercapnia was measured in a new group of subjects (N=8, age 29±7years) and it was found that CBF in ventricular regions increased by 48% upon CO2 inhalation, suggesting that blood oxygenation most likely increased rather than decreased. The findings from this study suggest that CO2 inhalation results in the dilation of ventricular vessels accompanied by shrinkage in CSF space, which is responsible for the apparently negative CVR in brain ventricles.
    NeuroImage 07/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic, repetitive, and sublethal hypoperfusion by intra- or extracranial artery stenosis promotes collateral development and conditions the brain toward preventing subsequent lethal ischemia, although these latent properties have rarely been demonstrated in the clinical setting. This study assessed the previously unexplored role of subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) on inciting and protecting brain damage. We enrolled patients diagnosed with SSS associated with subclavian artery stenosis. Subclavian steal was determined by transcranial Doppler and/or digital subtraction angiography. We analyzed the prevalences and predictors of posterior ischemic symptoms and infarcts in SSS patients and also investigated individual cases to demonstrate a clinical evidence of brain conditioning, focusing on cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. Of 54 SSS patients, 36 (66.7%) had been asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed with SSS, whereas 18 (33.3%) patients had presented with posterior ischemic symptoms. Symptoms and infarcts including old silent lesions occurred more frequently as unstable hemodynamics of the anterior circulation were combined. Of 18 symptomatic patients, 13 patients (72.2%) had transient ischemic attack and 5 (27.8%) patients had an infarct in the posterior circulation territory. Four patients with cytotoxic edema had mild neurologic deficits and rapid and complete recovery, whereas 1 patient had prolonged, severe vasogenic edema after acute hypertension. Although we noted low rates of disabling or fatal strokes in patients with SSS, a variety of vascular and neural factors beyond severity of subclavian steal could influence the likelihood of brain damage.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 10/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The functional imaging of perfusion enables the study of its properties such as the vasoreactivity to circulating gases, the autoregulation and the neurovascular coupling. Downstream from arterial stenosis, this imaging can estimate the vascular reserve and the risk of ischemia in order to adapt the therapeutic strategy. This method reveals the hemodynamic disorders in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease or with arteriovenous malformations revealed by epilepsy. Functional MRI of the vasoreactivity also helps to better interpret the functional MRI activation in practice and in clinical research.
    Diagnostic and interventional imaging. 09/2013;