Correlation between reduced susceptibility to disinfectants and multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility profiles to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents of 283 non-repetitive Acinetobacter clinical isolates obtained in 97 Japanese hospitals in March 2002.
Susceptibility profiles of the above isolates to four disinfectants, six antimicrobial agents and two dyes were investigated. MICs were measured by the agar dilution method recommended by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS). MBC measurements and time-kill assays were performed using a slightly modified quantitative suspension test based on the European Standard EN 1040.
No evident resistance to disinfectants was seen among the 283 strains of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in 2002, but the MIC(90)s of chlorhexidine gluconate, benzalkonium chloride and alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride were 50, 50 and 400 mg/L, respectively. Interestingly, the MICs of alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride and benzethonium chloride for four and three clinical isolates, respectively, reached 800 mg/L (approximately half the in-use concentration). The MBCs for the 28 disinfectant reduced susceptibility (DRS) isolates, for which the MICs of at least one of the four disinfectants tested were higher than the MIC(90), were comparable to those for susceptible isolates, in general; however, significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed between disinfectant-susceptible and DRS isolates in the time-kill assays of chlorhexidine gluconate, benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride. Furthermore, DRS isolates tended to demonstrate multiresistance profiles to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and amikacin (P < 0.05).
Since several Acinetobacter clinical isolates have developed augmented resistance to multiple antimicrobials and disinfectants, it is worth checking the susceptibility to disinfectants if multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. are recurrently isolated clinically.
Article: Acinetobacter infection.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2008; 358(26):2846; author reply 2846-7. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the resistance mechanisms and the genetic relationship of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical and environmental isolates were collected in the ICU of the Red Cross General Hospital, Athens, Greece between March and October 2002. The isolates were tested by Etest MBL, PCR, RT-PCR and sequencing for carbapenemase-encoding genes, PFGE and synergy experiments using meropenem and the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone. During the study period, 15 clinical and two environmental imipenem-resistant (MIC 8 to >128 mg/L) A. baumannii isolates were recovered. PFGE showed six different clones that included both clinical and environmental isolates. All 17 isolates were negative by Etest MBL and PCR for genes bla(IMP), bla(VIM), bla(SPM), bla(OXA-23-like) and bla(OXA-24-like). Genes bla(OXA-51-like) and bla(OXA-58-like) were amplified from 15 and 14 isolates, respectively. Sequencing of bla(OXA-51-like) amplicons identified bla(OXA-66) (nine cases) and bla(OXA-69) (six cases), whereas bla(OXA-58-like) sequences were classical bla(OXA-58). Reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that bla(OXA-51-like) genes were expressed in 12 and bla(OXA-58) in 10 isolates; in these isolates, inhibition of OXA enzymes by 200 mM of NaCl reduced carbapenem MICs by up to 4-fold. Overexpression of proton-gradient dependent efflux pumps did not contribute to carbapenem resistance in any isolate. Similarly, although AmpC expression was demonstrated in eight isolates, inhibition of AmpC with cloxacillin did not reduce the MICs of carbapenems significantly. These findings indicate wide dissemination of OXA-58 carbapenemase, which contributes, at least partially, to the imipenem resistance of unrelated A. baumannii isolates in our ICU.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/2006; 57(3):557-61. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hand disinfectants containing chlorhexidine are thought to be less bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). We report an in vitro comparison between three distinct MRSA strains and three MSSA strains. The bactericidal efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate, 'Hibiscrub' and 'Hibisol' against Staphylococcus aureus was determined in a quantitative suspension test. Logarithmic reduction factors (RF) were calculated for each of six parallel experiments. Chlorhexidine digluconate and 'Hibisol' showed RF > 5 at most concentrations and reaction times but 'Hibiscrub' did not. MRSA was found to be significantly less susceptible than MSSA to chlorhexidine digluconate, 'Hibiscrub' and 'Hibisol' (P < 0.05; two-tailed t-test for independent samples). 'Hibisol' was significantly more effective against MRSA than 'Hibiscrub' (P < 0.05). Hand disinfectants containing both alcohol and chlorhexidine (e.g., 'Hibisol') are more effective against MRSA than scrubs based only on chlorhexidine ('Hibiscrub') and should be used in clinical practice.Journal of Hospital Infection 05/1998; 38(4):297-303. · 2.86 Impact Factor