This study investigated the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and urinary incontinence (UI) in primiparous postpartum Chinese women.
Questionnaires about FI and UI symptoms were completed via telephone interviews conducted within 6 months postpartum.
A total of 1889 primiparous postpartum women were asked to participate in this investigation. Only 13 (0.69%) of them had FI within 6 months after parturition, including loss of flatus in six women (0.32%), loss of solid stool in one (0.05%), loss of liquid stool in two (0.11%) and fecal urgency in four (0.21%). Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FI was significantly associated with forceps delivery OR=37.91 (95% CI 4.20-342.18, P=0.001) and medio-lateral episiotomy OR=11.79 (95% CI 1.47-94.46, P=0.02). The prevalence of UI, stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was 9.9% (186), 8.0% (151), 1.0% (18) and 0.9% (17), respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis found that SUI prevalence was related to age OR=1.08 (95% CI 1.04-1.12, P=0.000), maternal weight OR=1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.06, P=0.001), neonate head circumference OR=1.17 (95% CI 1.01-1.36, P=0.043), spontaneous labor OR=5.42 (95% CI 2.60-11.32, P=0.000), forceps delivery OR=7.0 (95% CI 2.40-20.41, P=0.000), and medio-lateral episiotomy OR=5.24 (95% CI 3.15-8.72, P=0.000).
1. FI and UI prevalence was lower in our department than reported in previous studies in other areas. 2. Vaginal delivery has a risk impact on women's FI and UI, especially forceps delivery and medio-lateral episiotomy. 3. Maternal age, weight, newborn head circumference, spontaneous vaginal delivery, forceps delivery, and medio-lateral episiotomy increase the risk of UI.
"Pelvic floor disorders are common and are related to gender, race, age, pregnancy, vaginal delivery, instrumental delivery, episiotomy, infant head circumference, obesity, constipation, or connective tissue disorders    . Vaginal delivery is considered as a risk factor for pelvic prolapses, however, has not been confirmed in all the studies; the studies have mentioned that the cesarean section does not prevent urinary or fecal incontinence  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of vaginal flatus and some related risk factors in Iranian women. Methods. After conducting a pilot study, a sample size of 1000 subjects of 18 to 80 years was determined; of those 58 were unable to cooperate for various reasons. Age, parity, marital status, birth history, body mass index, and the weight of the largest newborn were collected. After a full gynecologic examination looking for pelvic organ prolapse, patients were asked about vaginal flatus and the frequency and time of occurrence. The results were studied using the chi-square test and independent t-test considering an alpha error of less than 0.05. Results. The prevalence of vaginal flatus was mainly 20% in this study, but embarrassment was observed in 5.7% of these women. 4% in the group were with no history of sexual contact (virgin). Vaginal flatus mostly started after vaginal delivery (45%) or spontaneously (34%); however, it was also reported after cesarean section and other pelvic operations. The most common activity leading to vaginal flatus was intercourse (54%); however, the time which had resulted in more inconvenience for the patients was during physical activities (92%). BMI and age were significantly lower in the patients (P < 0.0001). The grade of prolapse was lower in the patients (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Low age, low body mass index, and vaginal delivery can affect the incidence of a noisy vagina.
ISRN obstetrics and gynecology 05/2012; 2012:802648. DOI:10.5402/2012/802648
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 1-phase current controller is proposed, which combines both fixed frequency operation and variable bandwidth hysteresis, and which is further augmented with a generalized integrating resonator to eliminate the current steady state error, while simultaneously rejecting the 60 Hz power source disturbance. The variable hysteresis operation is accomplished using uni-polar rectifier bridge operation, controlled by two comparators driven respectively by opposite phase, fixed frequency, triangular carrier signals. Due to the resulting linear cycle-averaged input-output relationship of such uni-polar comparator operation, this allows conventional linear control using proportional plus generalized integrator actions. The proposed controller is validated with simulation results
Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2005. PESC '05. IEEE 36th; 02/2005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is multifactorial and evidence supports a critical role of pregnancy and vaginal delivery. This review dissects epidemiologic literature to determine the weight of evidence on the role of advanced maternal age (AMA) as a risk factor for the development of subsequent or persistent SUI. We conducted a Medline search using the keywords postpartum, SUI, maternal age, pregnancy, and incontinence. The published literature was critically analyzed. Evidence supports that childbirth trauma contributes to the development and severity of SUI. Yet, there is contradicting evidence as to whether AMA increases the risk. AMA clearly represents an independent risk factor for postpartum SUI. However, long-term studies did not confirm this observation. Whether this finding is suggestive of a true biologic signal that is lost with competing risk factors over time warrants further research.
International Urogynecology Journal 09/2011; 23(4):395-401. DOI:10.1007/s00192-011-1562-5 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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