Cognitive control in cued task switching with transition cues: cue processing, task processing, and cue-task transition congruency.
ABSTRACT We investigated the processes underlying performance during cued task switching with transition cues. To this end, transition cueing and explicit cueing were compared in a design controlling for sequential effects in the two preceding trials in order to further examine the contribution of cue processes, task processes, and cue-task transition congruency during transition cueing. The study confirmed that the task-switch cost in transition cueing is larger than the task-switch cost in explicit cueing and showed that this larger switch cost is mainly due to cue processing. We also successfully decomposed performance in transition cueing into cue processing, task processing, and cue-task transition congruency on both a theoretical (Experiment 1) and an empirical basis (Experiments 2-3). Our empirical dissociation also demonstrates that cue-task transition congruency affects performance during both cue processing and task processing. We discuss the importance of our findings in relation to the different theories on task switching.
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ABSTRACT: Image-to-class (I2C) distance is a novel measure for image classification and has successfully handled datasets with large intra-class variances. However, due to the lack of a training phase, the performance of this distance is easily affected by irrelevant local features that may hurt the classification accuracy. Besides, the success of this I2C distance relies heavily on the large number of local features in the training set, which requires expensive computation cost for classifying test images. On the other hand, if there are small number of local features in the training set, it may result in poor performance.In this paper, we propose a distance learning method to improve the classification accuracy of this I2C distance as well as two strategies for accelerating its NN search. We first propose a large margin optimization framework to learn the I2C distance function, which is modeled as a weighted combination of the distance from every local feature in an image to its nearest-neighbor (NN) in a candidate class. We learn these weights associated with local features in the training set by constraining the optimization such that the I2C distance from image to its belonging class should be less than that to any other class. We evaluate the proposed method on several publicly available image datasets and show that the performance of I2C distance for classification can significantly be improved by learning a weighted I2C distance function. To improve the computation cost, we also propose two methods based on spatial division and hubness score to accelerate the NN search, which is able to largely reduce the on-line testing time while still preserving or even achieving a better classification accuracy.Pattern Recognition 10/2011; 44:2384-2394. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined with traditional task cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the relevant task on a given trial) relative to conditions without transition cues. This effect was not influenced by explicit knowledge of transition cues or transition cue transparency, suggesting that transition cues did not need to be semantically processed to be beneficial. These findings reveal that young children's difficulties in set-shifting situations stem partially from failures to monitor for the need to switch.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 02/2011; 109(3):353-70. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Executive control development typically has been conceptualized to result from quantitative changes in the efficiency of the underlying processes. In contrast, the present study addressed the possibility of qualitative change with age by examining how children and adults detect task switches. Participants in three age groups (5- and 10-year-old children, young adults) completed two conditions of a cued task-switching paradigm where task cues were presented either in isolation or in conjunction with transition cues. Five-year-olds performed better with transition cues, whereas the reverse effect was observed at age 10 and with adults. Unlike 5-year-olds who detect switches after semantically processing cues, older participants strategically detect switches based on perceptual processing only. Age-related qualitative changes promote increasingly optimal adjustment of executive resources with age.Cognition 04/2013; 128(1):1-12. · 3.63 Impact Factor