Versatility of free SCIA/SIEA flaps in head and neck defects
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.Annals of plastic surgery (Impact Factor: 1.49). 07/2010; 65(1):32-7. DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181bb4b24
Reconstruction of head and neck defects may require replacement of the bony structures, external soft tissue, and intraoral mucosa. Most cases, including maxillary defects, often require repair using only soft tissue flaps. Recently, the authors used free superficial circumflex iliac artery/superficial inferior epigastric (SCIA/SIEA) flaps for head and neck reconstruction. This was their first choice over other free flaps due to its versatile advantages. Fifteen patients underwent head and neck reconstruction with free SCIA/SIEA flaps (n = 16). No flap loss was observed; however, emergency vascular reanastomosis was performed in 3 cases to restore the blood supply in compromised flaps. Flap thinning and secondary debulking procedures were performed in 4 cases. The functional and aesthetic results were deemed as acceptable in all patients. Based on our results, we believe that the free SCIA/SIEA flap is useful for soft tissue defect reconstruction in the head and neck. It has the following advantages: (1) Large flap elevation is possible for reaching distant recipient vessels, (2) Two surgical teams may work at the same time preparing the donor and recipient regions, and (3) The flap design uses an abdominoplasty incision, which has minimal donor site morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Craniofacial defects are often associated with 3-dimensional volumetric contour deficiencies. The free groin flap was historically popular though technical limitations subsequently caused its use to fall from favor. We sought to determine if a role remained for the free groin flap in aesthetic craniofacial reconstruction. From May 2005 to July 2010, 15 patients had 18 consecutive free groin flaps performed by the senior surgeon at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and the Johns Hopkins Medical Institute. Data collected included age, sex, operative date, etiology, defect size, recipient vessels, complications, donor-site closure, and follow-up time. Eighteen groin flaps were used for the patient cohort consisting of 10 males and 5 females (mean age, 26 years; range, 18-40 years) who underwent reconstruction necessitated by various oncologic, traumatic, infectious, and congenital etiologies. The average defect size was 7.3 × 6.3 cm (range, 3-10 × 1-10 cm). Seventeen flaps were based on the superficial circumflex iliac vessels and 1 on the superficial inferior epigastric vessels. Seventeen flaps used the superficial temporal artery and vein as the recipient vessels, and the remaining flap used the superior thyroid artery and retromandibular vein. Of the 18 flaps, 17 survived (94% survival rate). All donor sites were closed primarily. Follow-up time ranged from 6 to 60 months. The free groin flap is generally underused in the reconstruction of complex craniofacial facial defects. Its unique characteristics and minimal donor-site morbidity should prompt the reconstructive surgeon to retain the free groin flap in his or her armamentarium.Annals of plastic surgery 07/2011; 68(2):175-9. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182275d0f · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap was first reported in 2004, in which the concept of perforator flap was incorporated into the groin flap. Although a SCIP flap has many advantages, reports on its application to head and neck defects are limited. We present cases of SCIP flap transfer for reconstruction of various types of head and neck defects.Twelve patients underwent reconstruction using the free SCIP flap after tumor ablative surgery in the head and neck region. The flap was elevated based on the perforators of the superficial branch and/or deep branch of the superficial circumflex iliac artery. The thickness of the flap was adjusted according to the defect. The Photo Dynamic Eye infrared camera system using indocyanine green was used to detect the location of the perforators preoperatively and to confirm the blood flow after elevation of the flap. The flaps survived completely in all the cases. The mean pedicle length was 7.1 cm (range, 6-9 cm), and the mean flap size was 12.8 × 6.3 cm (range, 4 × 2 to 18 × 8 cm). No vein grafting was necessary in any patient.The advantages of the SCIP flap include 1) low donor-site morbidity; the donor site is in a hairless concealed area, primary donor-site closure is possible, and no muscular dissection is necessary; 2) adjustable thickness of the flap from a superthin flap to a bulky flap; and 3) a long vascular pedicle available.We believe that the SCIP flap will become one of the most versatile options in head and neck reconstruction.Annals of plastic surgery 08/2012; 72(3). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e318260a3ad · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most common causes of cheek defects include trauma, burn, and tumor resections. In the reconstruction of the defects in this region, it is essential to use similar or adjacent tissue considering the aesthetic and functional properties. For this purpose, numerous local, regional, or distant free flaps were described. The local flaps harvested from the head and neck region are the most frequent methods because of the similar skin color, texture, and compatibility with cheek.In this study, the reconstruction in a 29-year-old male patient who had a full-thickness cheek defect due to tumor resection on the left side was performed, wherein a hairless skin island was carried through the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery for oral mucosa, and a hairy skin island through the parietal branch of the same pedicle was carried for the bearded skin defect. No complication occurred postoperatively and both aesthetic and functional satisfactory results were obtained, providing the oral mucosal and natural beard integrity. Donor-site scarring and temporal alopecia were recorded as the disadvantages of this method.This technique is a useful method for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defects because of its advantages including compatibility of color and texture, reliable blood supply, requiring single-session procedure, and being able to carry 2 different skin islands on the same pedicle.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2013; 24(1):e92-5. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182798edf · 0.68 Impact Factor
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